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Unit 1: Intro. Psychology. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Uses scientific research methods. Behavior includes all observable behavior. Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams. Psychologist. Need a doctorate graduate degree

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psychology
Psychology
  • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
    • Uses scientific research methods.
    • Behavior includes all observable behavior.
    • Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.
psychologist
Psychologist
  • Need a doctorate graduate degree
  • May take 4-6 years to earn a doctorate in a subfield
clinical psychologist
Clinical Psychologist
  • Diagnose and treat patients with psychological problems
  • Largest number of professional psychologists
basic research
Basic Research
  • Pure science or research
  • Research for the sake of finding new information and expanding the knowledge base of psychology
neuropsychologist
Neuropsychologist
  • Also called biological psychologists or biopsychologists
  • Explore how the brain works
  • Most often work in university/college settings
social psychologist
Social Psychologist
  • Explore how behaviors, feelings, and beliefs are influenced by others
  • Study conformity, attitudes, leadership, prejudice, group behavior, etc.
  • Work in the business setting, government, and universities
developmental psychologist
Developmental Psychologist
  • Study the growth or development that takes place from the womb to death
  • Work in senior centers, hospitals, day-cares or universities
cognitive psychologist
Cognitive Psychologist
  • Study thought processes including intelligence, problem solving, attention, decision making, language, etc.
  • Work in educational settings and the business world
experimental psychologist
Experimental Psychologist
  • Also called research psychologist
  • Specialize in doing research in any of the other subfields
  • Work at universities, for the government, or in a business setting
applied research
Applied Research
  • Research designed to solve specific practical problems
forensic psychologist
Forensic Psychologist
  • Apply law and psychology to legal issues
  • Work in correctional settings, law enforcement, and academic settings
sports psychologist
Sports Psychologist
  • Explore psychological issues in improving athletic performance
  • Work for sports teams or in private practice
sports psychology
Sports Psychology
  • Play “Sports Imports” (5:38) Segment #33 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)
educational psychologist
Educational Psychologist
  • Study how humans learn and how to improve the learning process
  • Work in school systems, the government, or at universities
human factors psychologist
Human-factors Psychologist
  • Study how people and machines interact at home and in the workplace
  • Try to minimize frustration and increase safety and production
  • Work in the business world or for the government
industrial organizational i o psychologist
Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychologist
  • Try to apply psychology to help business and organizations operate
  • Work for the government, business or in academic settings
school psychologist
School Psychologist
  • Use psychology to improve the development of children in the school system
  • Are involved in assessments (testing)
  • Work for school systems, the government or universities
consumer psychologist
Consumer Psychologist
  • Study why people buy certain products and not others
  • Work in the business or academic world
rehabilitation psychologist
Rehabilitation Psychologist
  • Help those who have been involved in an accident or have been ill
  • Work in medical rehabilitation centers
health psychologist
Health Psychologist
  • Find ways to prevent disease and promote good health
  • Work for health agencies, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and universities
social worker
Social Worker
  • Only have an undergraduate or masters degree in psychology or social work
  • Work to improve the lives of others
  • Work for the government, schools, and residential facilities
modern psychology s nineteenth century roots

Modern Psychology’s Nineteenth-Century Roots

Module 2: History and Perspectives

wilhelm wundt 1832 1920
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
  • The “father of psychology”
  • Founder of modern psychology
  • Opened the first psychology lab in 1879
e b titchener 1867 1927
E.B. Titchener (1867-1927)
  • Analyzed the intensity, clarity and quality of the parts of consciousness
  • Founder of structuralism
structuralism
Structuralism
  • Theory that the structure of conscious experience could be understood by analyzing the basic elements of thoughts and sensations.
gestalt psychology
Gestalt Psychology
  • Psychological perspective that emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
  • The whole is different from the sum of its parts.
william james 1842 1910
William James (1842-1910)
  • First American psychologist
  • Author of the first psychology textbook
  • Founder of Functionalism
functionalism
Functionalism
  • Theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness or the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment
psychology in the twentieth century

Psychology in the Twentieth Century

Module 2: History and Perspectives

sigmund freud 1856 1939
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • Founder of the psychoanalytic perspective
  • Believed that abnormal behavior originated from unconscious drives and conflicts
psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
  • Theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
freud s influence
Freud’s Influence
  • Influence on “pop culture”
    • Freudian slips
    • Anal-retentive
  • Influence on psychology
    • Psychodynamic theory
    • Unconscious thoughts
    • Significance of childhood experiences
ivan pavlov 1849 1936
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
  • Russian Physiologist
  • Studied learning in animals
  • Emphasized the study of observable behaviors
john b watson 1878 1958
John B. Watson (1878-1958)
  • Founder of behaviorism
  • Studied only observable and objectively described acts
  • Emphasized objective and scientific methodology
behaviorism
Behaviorism
  • The theory that psychology should only study observable behaviors, not mental processes.
b f skinner 1904 1990
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
  • American psychologist whose brand of behaviorism focused on the role of responses in learning.
  • Focused on learning through rewards and observation
  • Behaviorist
humanistic psychology
Humanistic Psychology
  • School of thought that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and the capacity for personal growth
  • Stressed the study of conscious experience and an individual’s free will
  • Healthy individuals strive to reach their potential.
carl rogers abraham maslow
Carl Rogers/Abraham Maslow
  • Prominent Humanists
  • Rejected idea that behavior is controlled by rewards and punishments
  • Stressed free will in decision making

Carl Rogers

jean piaget
Jean Piaget
  • Developmental and cognitive psychologist known for his studies of children’s thought processes
  • Interested in how thinking develops
psychology s american groundbreakers

Psychology’s American Groundbreakers

Module 2: History and Perspective

g stanley hall
G. Stanley Hall
  • First American with a doctorate in psychology
  • Open the first psychology lab in U.S. at John Hopkins University
  • First president of the APA
mary whiton calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins
  • First woman to complete the requirements for a Ph.D. in psychology
  • President of the APA in 1905
margaret floy washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn
  • First woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the U.S.
francis cecil sumner
Francis Cecil Sumner
  • First African-American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology
kenneth clark mamie philips clark
Kenneth Clark/Mamie Philips Clark
  • Educational psychologists
  • Studied institutionalized racism
  • Studies were cited in “Brown v Board of Education”
inex beverly prosser
Inex Beverly Prosser
  • First African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology
six contemporary psychological perspectives

Six Contemporary Psychological Perspectives

Module 2: History and Perspectives

psychological perspectives
Psychological Perspectives
  • Method of classifying a collection of ideas
  • Also called “schools of thought”
  • Also called “psychological approaches”
  • To view behavior from a particular perspective
cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective
  • School of thought that focuses on how people think – how we take in, process, store, and retrieve information
  • Focus: On how people think and process information
  • Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation
biological perspective
Biological Perspective
  • School of thought that focuses on the physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior, thought, or emotion
  • Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotion
  • Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc.
social cultural perspective
Social-Cultural Perspective
  • School of thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different contexts or situations
  • Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation
  • Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present
behavioral perspective
Behavioral Perspective
  • Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation
  • Behavior is explained by previous learning
humanistic perspective
Humanistic Perspective
  • Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential
  • Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met.
psychodynamic perspective
Psychodynamic Perspective
  • Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts
  • Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood.
  • Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.
psychology in the twenty first century

Psychology in the Twenty-First Century

Module 2: History and Perspectives

behavior genetics
Behavior Genetics
  • School of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
  • Focus: How behavior is affected by genes and the environment
  • Combines biology and behaviorism
  • Emphasis on the importance of both genetic and environmental factors on behavior
evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives
  • Behavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.
positive psychology
Positive Psychology
  • Movement that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive
  • Focus: To study and promote optimal human functioning
  • Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate
  • Should promote building positive qualities of people
research methods
Research Methods
  • Yeah!!!!!!!!!
research and research methodology
Research and Research Methodology
  • Method of asking questions then drawing logical supported conclusions
  • Researchers need to be able to determine if conclusions are reasonable or not (critical thinking).
observation
Observation
  • Gathering of information by simply watching subjects
  • Can lead to bias
slide73
Bias
  • Situation in which a factor unfairly increases the likelihood of a researcher reaching a particular conclusion
  • Bias should be minimized as much as possible in research
researcher bias
Researcher Bias
  • The tendency to notice evidence which supports one particular point of view or hypothesis
  • Objectivity tends to reduce bias.
critical thinking
Critical Thinking
  • Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments or conclusions but questions their validity
participant bias
Participant Bias
  • Tendency of research subjects to respond in certain ways because they know they are being observed
  • The subjects might try to behave in ways they believe the researcher wants them to behave
  • Can be reduced by naturalistic observation
naturalistic observation
Naturalistic Observation
  • Method of observation where subjects are observed in their “natural” environment
  • Subjects are not aware they are being watched
  • Could use hidden cameras or two way mirrors
case study
Case Study
  • In depth study of one individual with the hopes of determining universal principles
  • This technique is very open to bias
  • Difficulty of applying data from one person to everyone
correlational study
Correlational Study
  • Research study designed to determine the degree to which two variables are related to one another
positive correlation
Positive Correlation
  • As the value of one variable increases (or decreases) so does the value of the other variable.
  • A perfect positive correlation is +1.0.
  • The closer the correlation is to +1.0, the stronger the relationship.
negative correlation
Negative Correlation
  • As the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases.
  • A perfect negative correlation is -1.0.
  • The closer the correlation is to -1.0, the stronger the relationship.
zero correlation
Zero Correlation
  • There is no relationship whatsoever between the two variables.
correlational study1
Correlational Study
  • Important NOT to imply a cause and effect relationship between the variables
  • Correlational study does not determine why the two variables are related--just that they are related.
  • Correlational studies are helpful in making predictions.
population
Population
  • The total large group being studied from which a sample is drawn for a study
random sample
Random Sample
  • A sample that represents a population fairly:
    • Each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.
    • If a sample is not random it is said to be biased.
what are the odds of each2
What are the Odds of Each?

1 in 2,598,960

1 in 2,598,960

developmental psychologists
Developmental Psychologists
  • Psychologists who study how individuals change throughout their lifetime
longitudinal study
Longitudinal Study
  • Developmental study where researchers study the same group of individuals for many years
  • Can be very expensive and difficult to conduct
cross sectional study
Cross-Sectional Study
  • Developmental study where researchers simultaneously study a number of subjects from different age groups and then compare the results
  • Cheaper, easier than longitudinal studies, but group differences may be due to factors other than development.
hypothesis
Hypothesis
  • A testable prediction of the outcome of the experiment or research
operational definitions
Operational Definitions
  • A specification of the exact procedures used to make a variable specific and measurable for research purposes
  • In evaluating others’ research, first determine if you agree with the researchers’ operational definitions.
independent variable
Independent Variable
  • The experimental variable which causes something to happen
  • The “cause variable”
  • The variable manipulated by the experimenter
  • The variable which should change the dependent variable
dependent variable
Dependent Variable
  • The experimental variable which is affected by the independent variable
  • The “effect variable”
  • The outcome of the experiment
  • The variable being measured
experimental group
Experimental Group
  • The subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the treatment (independent variable)
  • Also called the experimental condition
  • The group being studied and compared to the control group
control group
Control Group
  • Are not exposed to the independent variable
  • Results are compared to those of the experimental group
  • Also called the control condition
confounding variables
Confounding Variables
  • Variables, other than the independent variable, which could inadvertently influence the dependent variable
  • These variables should be controlled for in order to draw a true, cause-effect relationship in the experiment.
  • Many confounding variables can be eliminated through random assignment.
random assignment
Random Assignment
  • Assigning participants to the control and experimental groups by chance
  • Each participant should have an equal chance of being assigned into either group.
blind procedure
Blind procedure
  • An experimental procedure where the research participants are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment
  • Sometimes called single blind procedure
double blind procedure
Double Blind Procedure
  • An experimental procedure where both the research participants and those collecting the data are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment
placebo
Placebo
  • A non-active substance or condition administered instead of a drug or active agent
  • Given to the control group
statistically significant
Statistically Significant
  • Possibility that the differences in results between the experimental and control groups could have occurred by chance is no more than 5 percent
  • Must be at least 95% certain the differences between the groups is due to the independent variable
replication
Replication
  • Repeating the experiment to determine if similar results are found
  • If so, the research is considered reliable.
behavior genetics1
Behavior Genetics
  • The study of the relative effects of genes and environmental influences our behavior
genes
Genes
  • The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes
  • Many genes together make up chromosomes
environment
Environment
  • Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
  • Any influence, other than genetic, on an individual’s behavior
  • Include:
    • The culture someone is raised in
    • One’s family
    • Socioeconomic group
nature and nurture issue
Nature and Nurture Issue
  • Nature side entails the genetic code passed from parent to child.
  • Nurture side involves all environmental influences from prenatal development on.
  • Which parts of human behavior can we attribute to nature and which can be attributed to nurture?
genetics in brief

Genetics in Brief

Module 3: Nature and Nurture in Psychology

chromosomes
Chromosomes
  • Threadlike structures made up of DNA that contain the genes
  • 46 pairs in each cell
  • 23 received from each parent
deoxyribonucleic acid dna
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  • A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
nucleotides
Nucleotides
  • The four letter code to distinguish genes
  • Letters A,T,C, or G are used
mutation
Mutation
  • Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the individual’s genetic code;
  • The source of genetic diversity
  • Can be desirable or undesirable changes
predisposition
Predisposition
  • The possibility of something happening through the genetic code
  • Genetics creates the potential for something
  • The environment may or may not trigger the predisposition
genetic diseases
Genetic Diseases
  • http://www.hrmvideo.com/catalog/living-with-genetic-disorders
nature and individual differences

Nature and Individual Differences

Module 3: Nature and Nurture in Psychology

identical twins
Identical Twins
  • Twins who developed from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
  • Called monozygotic twins
fraternal twins
Fraternal Twins
  • Twins who developed from separate eggs; the are genetically no more similar than other siblings, but they share a fetal environment
  • Called dizygotic twins
heritability
Heritability
  • The degree to which traits are inherited
  • The proportion of an individual’s characteristics that can be attributed to genetics (heredity)
twin studies
Twin Studies
  • Used to determine the heritability of a given trait
  • Data is collected from both identical and fraternal twins on the trait
  • Compare the data between the two groups
  • Important not to conclude that a specific behavior is inherited
adoption studies
Adoption Studies
  • Compare adopted children’s traits with those of their biological parents and their adopted parents
  • Trait similarities with biological parents: attribute the trait to heredity
  • Trait similarities with the adopted parents: attribute the trait to the environment
early brain development
Early Brain Development
  • Early experience is critical in brain development.
  • In later life continued use is necessary to maintain neural connections in the brain.
peer influences
Peer Influences
  • Peer influence in adolescence is very powerful.
  • Many studies suggest a peer group is correlated with school performance, smoking, and other behaviors.
culture
Culture
  • The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms and behaviors of a group communicated from one generation to the next
norms
Norms
  • Understood rules for accepted and expected behavior
  • Consist of the “proper behavior” within a group
individualism
Individualism
  • Giving priority to one’s goals over the goals of the group,
  • Defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than the group’s identification
  • Tend to see people as separate and independent
collectivism
Collectivism
  • Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often the extended family or work group) and defining one’s personal identity accordingly
  • See people as connected to others
  • Individual needs are sacrificed for the good of the group.
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