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Unit 1: Intro. Psychology. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Uses scientific research methods. Behavior includes all observable behavior. Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams. Psychologist. Need a doctorate graduate degree

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Psychology
Psychology

  • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

    • Uses scientific research methods.

    • Behavior includes all observable behavior.

    • Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.


Psychologist
Psychologist

  • Need a doctorate graduate degree

  • May take 4-6 years to earn a doctorate in a subfield


Clinical psychologist
Clinical Psychologist

  • Diagnose and treat patients with psychological problems

  • Largest number of professional psychologists


Basic research
Basic Research

  • Pure science or research

  • Research for the sake of finding new information and expanding the knowledge base of psychology


Neuropsychologist
Neuropsychologist

  • Also called biological psychologists or biopsychologists

  • Explore how the brain works

  • Most often work in university/college settings


Social psychologist
Social Psychologist

  • Explore how behaviors, feelings, and beliefs are influenced by others

  • Study conformity, attitudes, leadership, prejudice, group behavior, etc.

  • Work in the business setting, government, and universities


Developmental psychologist
Developmental Psychologist

  • Study the growth or development that takes place from the womb to death

  • Work in senior centers, hospitals, day-cares or universities


Cognitive psychologist
Cognitive Psychologist

  • Study thought processes including intelligence, problem solving, attention, decision making, language, etc.

  • Work in educational settings and the business world


Experimental psychologist
Experimental Psychologist

  • Also called research psychologist

  • Specialize in doing research in any of the other subfields

  • Work at universities, for the government, or in a business setting


Applied research
Applied Research

  • Research designed to solve specific practical problems


Forensic psychologist
Forensic Psychologist

  • Apply law and psychology to legal issues

  • Work in correctional settings, law enforcement, and academic settings


Sports psychologist
Sports Psychologist

  • Explore psychological issues in improving athletic performance

  • Work for sports teams or in private practice


Sports psychology
Sports Psychology

  • Play “Sports Imports” (5:38) Segment #33 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)


Educational psychologist
Educational Psychologist

  • Study how humans learn and how to improve the learning process

  • Work in school systems, the government, or at universities


Human factors psychologist
Human-factors Psychologist

  • Study how people and machines interact at home and in the workplace

  • Try to minimize frustration and increase safety and production

  • Work in the business world or for the government


Industrial organizational i o psychologist
Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychologist

  • Try to apply psychology to help business and organizations operate

  • Work for the government, business or in academic settings


School psychologist
School Psychologist

  • Use psychology to improve the development of children in the school system

  • Are involved in assessments (testing)

  • Work for school systems, the government or universities


Consumer psychologist
Consumer Psychologist

  • Study why people buy certain products and not others

  • Work in the business or academic world


Rehabilitation psychologist
Rehabilitation Psychologist

  • Help those who have been involved in an accident or have been ill

  • Work in medical rehabilitation centers


Health psychologist
Health Psychologist

  • Find ways to prevent disease and promote good health

  • Work for health agencies, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and universities


Social worker
Social Worker

  • Only have an undergraduate or masters degree in psychology or social work

  • Work to improve the lives of others

  • Work for the government, schools, and residential facilities



Modern psychology s nineteenth century roots

Modern Psychology’s Nineteenth-Century Roots

Module 2: History and Perspectives


Wilhelm wundt 1832 1920
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

  • The “father of psychology”

  • Founder of modern psychology

  • Opened the first psychology lab in 1879


E b titchener 1867 1927
E.B. Titchener (1867-1927)

  • Analyzed the intensity, clarity and quality of the parts of consciousness

  • Founder of structuralism


Structuralism
Structuralism

  • Theory that the structure of conscious experience could be understood by analyzing the basic elements of thoughts and sensations.


Gestalt psychology
Gestalt Psychology

  • Psychological perspective that emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

  • The whole is different from the sum of its parts.


William james 1842 1910
William James (1842-1910)

  • First American psychologist

  • Author of the first psychology textbook

  • Founder of Functionalism


Functionalism
Functionalism

  • Theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness or the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment


Psychology in the twentieth century

Psychology in the Twentieth Century

Module 2: History and Perspectives


Sigmund freud 1856 1939
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

  • Founder of the psychoanalytic perspective

  • Believed that abnormal behavior originated from unconscious drives and conflicts



Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

  • Theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts


Freud s influence
Freud’s Influence

  • Influence on “pop culture”

    • Freudian slips

    • Anal-retentive

  • Influence on psychology

    • Psychodynamic theory

    • Unconscious thoughts

    • Significance of childhood experiences


Ivan pavlov 1849 1936
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

  • Russian Physiologist

  • Studied learning in animals

  • Emphasized the study of observable behaviors


John b watson 1878 1958
John B. Watson (1878-1958)

  • Founder of behaviorism

  • Studied only observable and objectively described acts

  • Emphasized objective and scientific methodology


Behaviorism
Behaviorism

  • The theory that psychology should only study observable behaviors, not mental processes.


B f skinner 1904 1990
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

  • American psychologist whose brand of behaviorism focused on the role of responses in learning.

  • Focused on learning through rewards and observation

  • Behaviorist


Humanistic psychology
Humanistic Psychology

  • School of thought that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and the capacity for personal growth

  • Stressed the study of conscious experience and an individual’s free will

  • Healthy individuals strive to reach their potential.


Carl rogers abraham maslow
Carl Rogers/Abraham Maslow

  • Prominent Humanists

  • Rejected idea that behavior is controlled by rewards and punishments

  • Stressed free will in decision making

Carl Rogers


Jean piaget
Jean Piaget

  • Developmental and cognitive psychologist known for his studies of children’s thought processes

  • Interested in how thinking develops


Psychology s american groundbreakers

Psychology’s American Groundbreakers

Module 2: History and Perspective


G stanley hall
G. Stanley Hall

  • First American with a doctorate in psychology

  • Open the first psychology lab in U.S. at John Hopkins University

  • First president of the APA


Mary whiton calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins

  • First woman to complete the requirements for a Ph.D. in psychology

  • President of the APA in 1905


Margaret floy washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn

  • First woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the U.S.


Francis cecil sumner
Francis Cecil Sumner

  • First African-American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology


Kenneth clark mamie philips clark
Kenneth Clark/Mamie Philips Clark

  • Educational psychologists

  • Studied institutionalized racism

  • Studies were cited in “Brown v Board of Education”


Inex beverly prosser
Inex Beverly Prosser

  • First African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology


Six contemporary psychological perspectives

Six Contemporary Psychological Perspectives

Module 2: History and Perspectives


Psychological perspectives
Psychological Perspectives

  • Method of classifying a collection of ideas

  • Also called “schools of thought”

  • Also called “psychological approaches”

  • To view behavior from a particular perspective


Cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective

  • School of thought that focuses on how people think – how we take in, process, store, and retrieve information

  • Focus: On how people think and process information

  • Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation


Biological perspective
Biological Perspective

  • School of thought that focuses on the physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior, thought, or emotion

  • Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotion

  • Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc.


Social cultural perspective
Social-Cultural Perspective

  • School of thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different contexts or situations

  • Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation

  • Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present


Behavioral perspective
Behavioral Perspective

  • Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation

  • Behavior is explained by previous learning


Humanistic perspective
Humanistic Perspective

  • Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential

  • Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met.


Psychodynamic perspective
Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts

  • Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood.

  • Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.


Psychology in the twenty first century

Psychology in the Twenty-First Century

Module 2: History and Perspectives


Behavior genetics
Behavior Genetics

  • School of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences

  • Focus: How behavior is affected by genes and the environment

  • Combines biology and behaviorism

  • Emphasis on the importance of both genetic and environmental factors on behavior


Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary Psychology

  • Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives

  • Behavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.


Positive psychology
Positive Psychology

  • Movement that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive

  • Focus: To study and promote optimal human functioning

  • Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate

  • Should promote building positive qualities of people





Research methods
Research Methods

  • Yeah!!!!!!!!!


Research and research methodology
Research and Research Methodology

  • Method of asking questions then drawing logical supported conclusions

  • Researchers need to be able to determine if conclusions are reasonable or not (critical thinking).


Observation
Observation

  • Gathering of information by simply watching subjects

  • Can lead to bias


Bias

  • Situation in which a factor unfairly increases the likelihood of a researcher reaching a particular conclusion

  • Bias should be minimized as much as possible in research


Researcher bias
Researcher Bias

  • The tendency to notice evidence which supports one particular point of view or hypothesis

  • Objectivity tends to reduce bias.


Critical thinking
Critical Thinking

  • Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments or conclusions but questions their validity


Participant bias
Participant Bias

  • Tendency of research subjects to respond in certain ways because they know they are being observed

  • The subjects might try to behave in ways they believe the researcher wants them to behave

  • Can be reduced by naturalistic observation


Naturalistic observation
Naturalistic Observation

  • Method of observation where subjects are observed in their “natural” environment

  • Subjects are not aware they are being watched

  • Could use hidden cameras or two way mirrors


Case study
Case Study

  • In depth study of one individual with the hopes of determining universal principles

  • This technique is very open to bias

  • Difficulty of applying data from one person to everyone


Correlational study
Correlational Study

  • Research study designed to determine the degree to which two variables are related to one another



Positive correlation
Positive Correlation

  • As the value of one variable increases (or decreases) so does the value of the other variable.

  • A perfect positive correlation is +1.0.

  • The closer the correlation is to +1.0, the stronger the relationship.


Negative correlation
Negative Correlation

  • As the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases.

  • A perfect negative correlation is -1.0.

  • The closer the correlation is to -1.0, the stronger the relationship.


Zero correlation
Zero Correlation

  • There is no relationship whatsoever between the two variables.


Correlational study1
Correlational Study

  • Important NOT to imply a cause and effect relationship between the variables

  • Correlational study does not determine why the two variables are related--just that they are related.

  • Correlational studies are helpful in making predictions.


Population
Population

  • The total large group being studied from which a sample is drawn for a study


Random sample
Random Sample

  • A sample that represents a population fairly:

    • Each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.

    • If a sample is not random it is said to be biased.




What are the odds of each2
What are the Odds of Each?

1 in 2,598,960

1 in 2,598,960


Developmental psychologists
Developmental Psychologists

  • Psychologists who study how individuals change throughout their lifetime


Longitudinal study
Longitudinal Study

  • Developmental study where researchers study the same group of individuals for many years

  • Can be very expensive and difficult to conduct


Cross sectional study
Cross-Sectional Study

  • Developmental study where researchers simultaneously study a number of subjects from different age groups and then compare the results

  • Cheaper, easier than longitudinal studies, but group differences may be due to factors other than development.


Hypothesis
Hypothesis

  • A testable prediction of the outcome of the experiment or research


Operational definitions
Operational Definitions

  • A specification of the exact procedures used to make a variable specific and measurable for research purposes

  • In evaluating others’ research, first determine if you agree with the researchers’ operational definitions.


Independent variable
Independent Variable

  • The experimental variable which causes something to happen

  • The “cause variable”

  • The variable manipulated by the experimenter

  • The variable which should change the dependent variable


Dependent variable
Dependent Variable

  • The experimental variable which is affected by the independent variable

  • The “effect variable”

  • The outcome of the experiment

  • The variable being measured


Experimental group
Experimental Group

  • The subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the treatment (independent variable)

  • Also called the experimental condition

  • The group being studied and compared to the control group


Control group
Control Group

  • Are not exposed to the independent variable

  • Results are compared to those of the experimental group

  • Also called the control condition


Confounding variables
Confounding Variables

  • Variables, other than the independent variable, which could inadvertently influence the dependent variable

  • These variables should be controlled for in order to draw a true, cause-effect relationship in the experiment.

  • Many confounding variables can be eliminated through random assignment.


Random assignment
Random Assignment

  • Assigning participants to the control and experimental groups by chance

  • Each participant should have an equal chance of being assigned into either group.


Blind procedure
Blind procedure

  • An experimental procedure where the research participants are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment

  • Sometimes called single blind procedure


Double blind procedure
Double Blind Procedure

  • An experimental procedure where both the research participants and those collecting the data are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment


Placebo
Placebo

  • A non-active substance or condition administered instead of a drug or active agent

  • Given to the control group


Statistically significant
Statistically Significant

  • Possibility that the differences in results between the experimental and control groups could have occurred by chance is no more than 5 percent

  • Must be at least 95% certain the differences between the groups is due to the independent variable


Replication
Replication

  • Repeating the experiment to determine if similar results are found

  • If so, the research is considered reliable.



Behavior genetics1
Behavior Genetics

  • The study of the relative effects of genes and environmental influences our behavior


Genes
Genes

  • The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes

  • Many genes together make up chromosomes


Environment
Environment

  • Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

  • Any influence, other than genetic, on an individual’s behavior

  • Include:

    • The culture someone is raised in

    • One’s family

    • Socioeconomic group


Nature and nurture issue
Nature and Nurture Issue

  • Nature side entails the genetic code passed from parent to child.

  • Nurture side involves all environmental influences from prenatal development on.

  • Which parts of human behavior can we attribute to nature and which can be attributed to nurture?


Genetics in brief

Genetics in Brief

Module 3: Nature and Nurture in Psychology


Chromosomes
Chromosomes

  • Threadlike structures made up of DNA that contain the genes

  • 46 pairs in each cell

  • 23 received from each parent



Deoxyribonucleic acid dna
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

  • A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes


Nucleotides
Nucleotides

  • The four letter code to distinguish genes

  • Letters A,T,C, or G are used



Mutation
Mutation

  • Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the individual’s genetic code;

  • The source of genetic diversity

  • Can be desirable or undesirable changes


Predisposition
Predisposition

  • The possibility of something happening through the genetic code

  • Genetics creates the potential for something

  • The environment may or may not trigger the predisposition


Genetic diseases
Genetic Diseases

  • http://www.hrmvideo.com/catalog/living-with-genetic-disorders


Nature and individual differences

Nature and Individual Differences

Module 3: Nature and Nurture in Psychology


Identical twins
Identical Twins

  • Twins who developed from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

  • Called monozygotic twins


Fraternal twins
Fraternal Twins

  • Twins who developed from separate eggs; the are genetically no more similar than other siblings, but they share a fetal environment

  • Called dizygotic twins


Heritability
Heritability

  • The degree to which traits are inherited

  • The proportion of an individual’s characteristics that can be attributed to genetics (heredity)


Twin studies
Twin Studies

  • Used to determine the heritability of a given trait

  • Data is collected from both identical and fraternal twins on the trait

  • Compare the data between the two groups

  • Important not to conclude that a specific behavior is inherited


Adoption studies
Adoption Studies

  • Compare adopted children’s traits with those of their biological parents and their adopted parents

  • Trait similarities with biological parents: attribute the trait to heredity

  • Trait similarities with the adopted parents: attribute the trait to the environment


Early brain development
Early Brain Development

  • Early experience is critical in brain development.

  • In later life continued use is necessary to maintain neural connections in the brain.


Peer influences
Peer Influences

  • Peer influence in adolescence is very powerful.

  • Many studies suggest a peer group is correlated with school performance, smoking, and other behaviors.


Culture
Culture

  • The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms and behaviors of a group communicated from one generation to the next


Norms
Norms

  • Understood rules for accepted and expected behavior

  • Consist of the “proper behavior” within a group


Individualism
Individualism

  • Giving priority to one’s goals over the goals of the group,

  • Defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than the group’s identification

  • Tend to see people as separate and independent


Collectivism
Collectivism

  • Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often the extended family or work group) and defining one’s personal identity accordingly

  • See people as connected to others

  • Individual needs are sacrificed for the good of the group.



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