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Unit 1: Intro. Psychology. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Uses scientific research methods. Behavior includes all observable behavior. Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams. Psychologist. Need a doctorate graduate degree

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Unit 1: Intro

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Unit 1 intro

Unit 1: Intro



  • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

    • Uses scientific research methods.

    • Behavior includes all observable behavior.

    • Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.



  • Need a doctorate graduate degree

  • May take 4-6 years to earn a doctorate in a subfield

Clinical psychologist

Clinical Psychologist

  • Diagnose and treat patients with psychological problems

  • Largest number of professional psychologists

Basic research

Basic Research

  • Pure science or research

  • Research for the sake of finding new information and expanding the knowledge base of psychology



  • Also called biological psychologists or biopsychologists

  • Explore how the brain works

  • Most often work in university/college settings

Social psychologist

Social Psychologist

  • Explore how behaviors, feelings, and beliefs are influenced by others

  • Study conformity, attitudes, leadership, prejudice, group behavior, etc.

  • Work in the business setting, government, and universities

Developmental psychologist

Developmental Psychologist

  • Study the growth or development that takes place from the womb to death

  • Work in senior centers, hospitals, day-cares or universities

Cognitive psychologist

Cognitive Psychologist

  • Study thought processes including intelligence, problem solving, attention, decision making, language, etc.

  • Work in educational settings and the business world

Experimental psychologist

Experimental Psychologist

  • Also called research psychologist

  • Specialize in doing research in any of the other subfields

  • Work at universities, for the government, or in a business setting

Applied research

Applied Research

  • Research designed to solve specific practical problems

Forensic psychologist

Forensic Psychologist

  • Apply law and psychology to legal issues

  • Work in correctional settings, law enforcement, and academic settings

Sports psychologist

Sports Psychologist

  • Explore psychological issues in improving athletic performance

  • Work for sports teams or in private practice

Sports psychology

Sports Psychology

  • Play “Sports Imports” (5:38) Segment #33 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)

Educational psychologist

Educational Psychologist

  • Study how humans learn and how to improve the learning process

  • Work in school systems, the government, or at universities

Human factors psychologist

Human-factors Psychologist

  • Study how people and machines interact at home and in the workplace

  • Try to minimize frustration and increase safety and production

  • Work in the business world or for the government

Industrial organizational i o psychologist

Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychologist

  • Try to apply psychology to help business and organizations operate

  • Work for the government, business or in academic settings

School psychologist

School Psychologist

  • Use psychology to improve the development of children in the school system

  • Are involved in assessments (testing)

  • Work for school systems, the government or universities

Consumer psychologist

Consumer Psychologist

  • Study why people buy certain products and not others

  • Work in the business or academic world

Rehabilitation psychologist

Rehabilitation Psychologist

  • Help those who have been involved in an accident or have been ill

  • Work in medical rehabilitation centers

Health psychologist

Health Psychologist

  • Find ways to prevent disease and promote good health

  • Work for health agencies, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and universities

Social worker

Social Worker

  • Only have an undergraduate or masters degree in psychology or social work

  • Work to improve the lives of others

  • Work for the government, schools, and residential facilities

History and perspectives

History and Perspectives

Module 02

Modern psychology s nineteenth century roots

Modern Psychology’s Nineteenth-Century Roots

Module 2: History and Perspectives

Wilhelm wundt 1832 1920

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

  • The “father of psychology”

  • Founder of modern psychology

  • Opened the first psychology lab in 1879

E b titchener 1867 1927

E.B. Titchener (1867-1927)

  • Analyzed the intensity, clarity and quality of the parts of consciousness

  • Founder of structuralism



  • Theory that the structure of conscious experience could be understood by analyzing the basic elements of thoughts and sensations.

Gestalt psychology

Gestalt Psychology

  • Psychological perspective that emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

  • The whole is different from the sum of its parts.

William james 1842 1910

William James (1842-1910)

  • First American psychologist

  • Author of the first psychology textbook

  • Founder of Functionalism



  • Theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness or the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment

Psychology in the twentieth century

Psychology in the Twentieth Century

Module 2: History and Perspectives

Sigmund freud 1856 1939

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

  • Founder of the psychoanalytic perspective

  • Believed that abnormal behavior originated from unconscious drives and conflicts

Unit 1 intro

  • http://www.natgeoeducationvideo.com/film/562/sigmund-freud



  • Theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts

Freud s influence

Freud’s Influence

  • Influence on “pop culture”

    • Freudian slips

    • Anal-retentive

  • Influence on psychology

    • Psychodynamic theory

    • Unconscious thoughts

    • Significance of childhood experiences

Ivan pavlov 1849 1936

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

  • Russian Physiologist

  • Studied learning in animals

  • Emphasized the study of observable behaviors

John b watson 1878 1958

John B. Watson (1878-1958)

  • Founder of behaviorism

  • Studied only observable and objectively described acts

  • Emphasized objective and scientific methodology



  • The theory that psychology should only study observable behaviors, not mental processes.

B f skinner 1904 1990

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

  • American psychologist whose brand of behaviorism focused on the role of responses in learning.

  • Focused on learning through rewards and observation

  • Behaviorist

Humanistic psychology

Humanistic Psychology

  • School of thought that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and the capacity for personal growth

  • Stressed the study of conscious experience and an individual’s free will

  • Healthy individuals strive to reach their potential.

Carl rogers abraham maslow

Carl Rogers/Abraham Maslow

  • Prominent Humanists

  • Rejected idea that behavior is controlled by rewards and punishments

  • Stressed free will in decision making

Carl Rogers

Jean piaget

Jean Piaget

  • Developmental and cognitive psychologist known for his studies of children’s thought processes

  • Interested in how thinking develops

Psychology s american groundbreakers

Psychology’s American Groundbreakers

Module 2: History and Perspective

G stanley hall

G. Stanley Hall

  • First American with a doctorate in psychology

  • Open the first psychology lab in U.S. at John Hopkins University

  • First president of the APA

Mary whiton calkins

Mary Whiton Calkins

  • First woman to complete the requirements for a Ph.D. in psychology

  • President of the APA in 1905

Margaret floy washburn

Margaret Floy Washburn

  • First woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the U.S.

Francis cecil sumner

Francis Cecil Sumner

  • First African-American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology

Kenneth clark mamie philips clark

Kenneth Clark/Mamie Philips Clark

  • Educational psychologists

  • Studied institutionalized racism

  • Studies were cited in “Brown v Board of Education”

Inex beverly prosser

Inex Beverly Prosser

  • First African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology

Six contemporary psychological perspectives

Six Contemporary Psychological Perspectives

Module 2: History and Perspectives

Psychological perspectives

Psychological Perspectives

  • Method of classifying a collection of ideas

  • Also called “schools of thought”

  • Also called “psychological approaches”

  • To view behavior from a particular perspective

Cognitive perspective

Cognitive Perspective

  • School of thought that focuses on how people think – how we take in, process, store, and retrieve information

  • Focus: On how people think and process information

  • Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation

Biological perspective

Biological Perspective

  • School of thought that focuses on the physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior, thought, or emotion

  • Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotion

  • Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc.

Social cultural perspective

Social-Cultural Perspective

  • School of thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different contexts or situations

  • Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation

  • Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present

Behavioral perspective

Behavioral Perspective

  • Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation

  • Behavior is explained by previous learning

Humanistic perspective

Humanistic Perspective

  • Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential

  • Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met.

Psychodynamic perspective

Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts

  • Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood.

  • Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.

Psychology in the twenty first century

Psychology in the Twenty-First Century

Module 2: History and Perspectives

Behavior genetics

Behavior Genetics

  • School of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences

  • Focus: How behavior is affected by genes and the environment

  • Combines biology and behaviorism

  • Emphasis on the importance of both genetic and environmental factors on behavior

Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary Psychology

  • Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives

  • Behavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.

Positive psychology

Positive Psychology

  • Movement that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive

  • Focus: To study and promote optimal human functioning

  • Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate

  • Should promote building positive qualities of people

History of psychology

History of Psychology

History of psychology1

History of Psychology

History of psychology2

History of Psychology

Research methods

Research Methods

  • Yeah!!!!!!!!!

Research and research methodology

Research and Research Methodology

  • Method of asking questions then drawing logical supported conclusions

  • Researchers need to be able to determine if conclusions are reasonable or not (critical thinking).



  • Gathering of information by simply watching subjects

  • Can lead to bias

Unit 1 intro


  • Situation in which a factor unfairly increases the likelihood of a researcher reaching a particular conclusion

  • Bias should be minimized as much as possible in research

Researcher bias

Researcher Bias

  • The tendency to notice evidence which supports one particular point of view or hypothesis

  • Objectivity tends to reduce bias.

Critical thinking

Critical Thinking

  • Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments or conclusions but questions their validity

Participant bias

Participant Bias

  • Tendency of research subjects to respond in certain ways because they know they are being observed

  • The subjects might try to behave in ways they believe the researcher wants them to behave

  • Can be reduced by naturalistic observation

Naturalistic observation

Naturalistic Observation

  • Method of observation where subjects are observed in their “natural” environment

  • Subjects are not aware they are being watched

  • Could use hidden cameras or two way mirrors

Case study

Case Study

  • In depth study of one individual with the hopes of determining universal principles

  • This technique is very open to bias

  • Difficulty of applying data from one person to everyone

Correlational study

Correlational Study

  • Research study designed to determine the degree to which two variables are related to one another

How to read a correlation

How to Read a Correlation

Positive correlation

Positive Correlation

  • As the value of one variable increases (or decreases) so does the value of the other variable.

  • A perfect positive correlation is +1.0.

  • The closer the correlation is to +1.0, the stronger the relationship.

Negative correlation

Negative Correlation

  • As the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases.

  • A perfect negative correlation is -1.0.

  • The closer the correlation is to -1.0, the stronger the relationship.

Zero correlation

Zero Correlation

  • There is no relationship whatsoever between the two variables.

Correlational study1

Correlational Study

  • Important NOT to imply a cause and effect relationship between the variables

  • Correlational study does not determine why the two variables are related--just that they are related.

  • Correlational studies are helpful in making predictions.



  • The total large group being studied from which a sample is drawn for a study

Random sample

Random Sample

  • A sample that represents a population fairly:

    • Each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.

    • If a sample is not random it is said to be biased.

What are the odds of each

What are the Odds of Each?

What are the odds of each1

What are the Odds of Each?

1 in 2,598,960

What are the odds of each2

What are the Odds of Each?

1 in 2,598,960

1 in 2,598,960

Developmental psychologists

Developmental Psychologists

  • Psychologists who study how individuals change throughout their lifetime

Longitudinal study

Longitudinal Study

  • Developmental study where researchers study the same group of individuals for many years

  • Can be very expensive and difficult to conduct

Cross sectional study

Cross-Sectional Study

  • Developmental study where researchers simultaneously study a number of subjects from different age groups and then compare the results

  • Cheaper, easier than longitudinal studies, but group differences may be due to factors other than development.



  • A testable prediction of the outcome of the experiment or research

Operational definitions

Operational Definitions

  • A specification of the exact procedures used to make a variable specific and measurable for research purposes

  • In evaluating others’ research, first determine if you agree with the researchers’ operational definitions.

Independent variable

Independent Variable

  • The experimental variable which causes something to happen

  • The “cause variable”

  • The variable manipulated by the experimenter

  • The variable which should change the dependent variable

Dependent variable

Dependent Variable

  • The experimental variable which is affected by the independent variable

  • The “effect variable”

  • The outcome of the experiment

  • The variable being measured

Experimental group

Experimental Group

  • The subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the treatment (independent variable)

  • Also called the experimental condition

  • The group being studied and compared to the control group

Control group

Control Group

  • Are not exposed to the independent variable

  • Results are compared to those of the experimental group

  • Also called the control condition

Confounding variables

Confounding Variables

  • Variables, other than the independent variable, which could inadvertently influence the dependent variable

  • These variables should be controlled for in order to draw a true, cause-effect relationship in the experiment.

  • Many confounding variables can be eliminated through random assignment.

Random assignment

Random Assignment

  • Assigning participants to the control and experimental groups by chance

  • Each participant should have an equal chance of being assigned into either group.

Blind procedure

Blind procedure

  • An experimental procedure where the research participants are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment

  • Sometimes called single blind procedure

Double blind procedure

Double Blind Procedure

  • An experimental procedure where both the research participants and those collecting the data are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment



  • A non-active substance or condition administered instead of a drug or active agent

  • Given to the control group

Statistically significant

Statistically Significant

  • Possibility that the differences in results between the experimental and control groups could have occurred by chance is no more than 5 percent

  • Must be at least 95% certain the differences between the groups is due to the independent variable



  • Repeating the experiment to determine if similar results are found

  • If so, the research is considered reliable.

Nature and nurture in psychology

Nature and Nurture in Psychology

Module 03

Behavior genetics1

Behavior Genetics

  • The study of the relative effects of genes and environmental influences our behavior



  • The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes

  • Many genes together make up chromosomes



  • Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

  • Any influence, other than genetic, on an individual’s behavior

  • Include:

    • The culture someone is raised in

    • One’s family

    • Socioeconomic group

Nature and nurture issue

Nature and Nurture Issue

  • Nature side entails the genetic code passed from parent to child.

  • Nurture side involves all environmental influences from prenatal development on.

  • Which parts of human behavior can we attribute to nature and which can be attributed to nurture?

Genetics in brief

Genetics in Brief

Module 3: Nature and Nurture in Psychology



  • Threadlike structures made up of DNA that contain the genes

  • 46 pairs in each cell

  • 23 received from each parent



Deoxyribonucleic acid dna

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

  • A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes



  • The four letter code to distinguish genes

  • Letters A,T,C, or G are used

Cellular makeup

Cellular Makeup



  • Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the individual’s genetic code;

  • The source of genetic diversity

  • Can be desirable or undesirable changes



  • The possibility of something happening through the genetic code

  • Genetics creates the potential for something

  • The environment may or may not trigger the predisposition

Genetic diseases

Genetic Diseases

  • http://www.hrmvideo.com/catalog/living-with-genetic-disorders

Nature and individual differences

Nature and Individual Differences

Module 3: Nature and Nurture in Psychology

Identical twins

Identical Twins

  • Twins who developed from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

  • Called monozygotic twins

Fraternal twins

Fraternal Twins

  • Twins who developed from separate eggs; the are genetically no more similar than other siblings, but they share a fetal environment

  • Called dizygotic twins



  • The degree to which traits are inherited

  • The proportion of an individual’s characteristics that can be attributed to genetics (heredity)

Twin studies

Twin Studies

  • Used to determine the heritability of a given trait

  • Data is collected from both identical and fraternal twins on the trait

  • Compare the data between the two groups

  • Important not to conclude that a specific behavior is inherited

Adoption studies

Adoption Studies

  • Compare adopted children’s traits with those of their biological parents and their adopted parents

  • Trait similarities with biological parents: attribute the trait to heredity

  • Trait similarities with the adopted parents: attribute the trait to the environment

Early brain development

Early Brain Development

  • Early experience is critical in brain development.

  • In later life continued use is necessary to maintain neural connections in the brain.

Peer influences

Peer Influences

  • Peer influence in adolescence is very powerful.

  • Many studies suggest a peer group is correlated with school performance, smoking, and other behaviors.



  • The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms and behaviors of a group communicated from one generation to the next



  • Understood rules for accepted and expected behavior

  • Consist of the “proper behavior” within a group



  • Giving priority to one’s goals over the goals of the group,

  • Defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than the group’s identification

  • Tend to see people as separate and independent



  • Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often the extended family or work group) and defining one’s personal identity accordingly

  • See people as connected to others

  • Individual needs are sacrificed for the good of the group.

The end

The End

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