Child Protection and Poverty Linkages. ODI/ OAK Foundation. Rachel Marcus Consultant, Overseas Development Institute. Focus of Research. Four thematic areas: inadequate care, sexual abuse and exploitation, physical violence and early marriage
Four thematic areas: inadequate care, sexual abuse and exploitation, physical violence and early marriage
1) What are the linkages between economic deprivation and child protection violations? (Comprehensive literature review)
2) What actions in child protection programmes address economic deprivation and how effective are these actions? (Adapted systematic review)
Multi-dimensional conception of poverty
Knowledge gap concerning impacts of actions to reduce economic deprivation.
Entailed looking at a wide range of child protection programmes and other programmes where child protection outcomes were reported ie not just economic strengthening programmes
369 papers were quality assessed for adapted systematic review
After quality assessment, 80 papers on interventions included in review
Overall 71 interventions examined, 13 for early marriage, 27 for sexual violence, 15 for physical violence, and 20 for promoting better care (several programmes had impacts on more than one issue)
Economic strengthening programmes
Cash transfers In-kind transfers
Vocational skills training Entrepreneurship training and support
Microfinance Job search information/ job matching
Between a third and a half the programmes examined have economic strengthening components. Most common for early marriage.
Largely run by NGOs. Only exceptions were large cash transfer programmes (state-run)
Very little integration with broader social/ child protection systems (reflects fact that most programmes examined were small-scale and run by NGOs)
Caveat: small number of programmes within each thematic area
transfer, 5 microfinance,4 vocational skills training, 1 job-search
(NB several programmes had multiple economic strengthening activities)
Conditional cash transfers, uniform and fee subsidies, and provision of school materials helped keep girls in school and achieved significant reduction in EM
A) By keeping girls in school and thus they were seen as unmarriageable?
OR B) through the impact on household finances?
May be different mechanisms for in school and out-of-school girls (Malawi).
Most programmes lacked an awareness-raising component so no evidence as to whether this would have had additional impact.
BerhaneHewan (Ethiopia): school supplies had greatest impact on girls’ school attendance but community awareness raising had greatest effect on early marriage rates
-Changed attitudes, and some evidence of reduced teen pregnancy (Kenya)
- Many achieved significant changes without economic strengthening components
Also strong evidence of positive effect of transfers/ subsidies on reducing early marriage without any attitude-change activities
And positive impacts of good quality entrepreneurship/ vocational skills for sexual exploitation, gang violence
And income poverty continues to be barrier to accessing CP systems, improving care practices and continues to exacerbate likelihood of early marriage & sexual exploitation