Classification of organisms. Whittaker’s 5 kingdoms. Prokaryotes | Unicellular. Monera. Monera Lactic Acid Bacteria . Magnification: x6666 @ 10 cm.
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Magnification: x6666 @ 10 cm.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), grown on purpose in cucumbers immersed in a salty brine digest the sugars in the cucumbers and metabolize them into lactic acid. Thus they remove a potential food source for harmful bacteria. At the same time, lactic acid produces an acidic medium which functions as a preservative and controls spoilage bacteria. The high salt concentration used is tolerated by the lactic acid bacteria but prevents spoilage bacteria from propagating. The cucumbers thus treated are called pickles or pickled cucumbers.
e.g. Lactobacillus - probiotic bacteria, which are useful for human and animal health
Magnification: x250 @ 3.5 cm.
a.k.aNostoc or Cynanobacteria
The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós) = blue).
The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is thought to have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by stimulating biodiversity.
Cyanobacteria can be found in almost every conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil.
Heterocyst-forming species are specialized for nitrogen fixation and are able to fix nitrogen gas into ammonia, nitrites or nitrates which can be absorbed by plants and converted to protein and nucleic acids
Magnification x1000 @ 10 cm.
Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa. They are about 50 to 350 μm in length. Simple cilia cover the body, which allow the cell to move with a synchronous motion (like a caterpillar).
Paramecia are widespread in freshwater environments.
Paramecia feed on microorganisms like bacteria, algae, and yeasts.
Magnification x17000 @ 10 cm.
Amoeba are single-celled organisms (protozoa) that feed and move using irregular extensions of the cell cytoplasm known as pseudopods.
To move the amoeba extends a pseudopod in the direction it "wishes" to go, anchors it and pulls itself forward by contracting it's cell body.
Feeding occurs by phagocytosis. A pseudopodium flows out, engulfs a small organism such as an alga and is then reabsorbed into the cell body, where it is digested by enzymes within a digestive vacuole.
Magnification x2200 @ 10 cm.
This freshwater single-celled organism can either obtain energy from sunlight, via photosynthesis, or by absorbing chemicals from its surroundings.
It is also, like many protozoa, an active swimmer, moving rapidly by beating its long, whip-like flagellum.
Magnification x900 @ 10 cm.
Chlamydomonas are single-celled organisms are aquatic, living in freshwater habitats.
They use their two, tail- like flagella for swimming. These algae are also photosynthetic; they contain two types of the pigment chlorophyll, which they use to capture sunlight energy for the manufacture of sugars.
Magnification x200 @ 10 cm.
Diatoms are single-celled photosynthetic algae, of which there are about 100,000 species, forming an important part of the plankton at the base of the marine and freshwater food chains.
They have mineralized cell walls that contain pure silica coated with a layer of organic material.
Eukaryotes | Multicellular | With cell wall | Don’t perform photosynthesisFungi
Magnification x375 @ 10 cm.
It produces penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body.
Moulds grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Since fungi use decaying organic matter to grow fungi are also called as saphrophytes.
Penicillium is a common fungus to infect bread, producing mould of this colour.
Magnification x350 @ 10 cm.
Aspergillus produces toxins that lead to food contamination. This species may also cause aspergillosis, a hypersensitive lung reaction in asthmatics and those with lowered resistance, provoked by repeated inhalation of the spores.
Aspergillusgrows in household dust, soil, and decaying vegetable matter, including stale food.
Spores about to be released in the air.
Mould on nectarines
Color of mould depends on the nature of the substrate & on the species of fungus; green for Penicillium, blue, green or yellow for Aspergillus.
Network of vegetative filaments called hyphae.
Magnification x3500 @ 10 cm.
Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic micro-organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species currently described estimated to be only 1% of all fungal species.
Yeast is commonly used in fermenting of alcoholic beverages and baking.
have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry.
A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. Like all fungi, mushrooms are not plants and do not undergo photosynthesis.
Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly).
Lichens are symbiotic organisms formed of a fungus and an alga that mutually benefit one another.
The alga is contained within the hyphae (filaments) of the fungus which protects it from harsh conditions, and in particular from desiccation. The alga supplies the fungus with nutrients that it makes by photosynthesis.
Eukaryotes | Multicellular | With cell wall | Perform photosynthesisPlantae
thallus = green shoot or twig
Spirogyra are filamentous green algae found in freshwater
Cladophora and Sea Lettuce (Ulvalactuca)
Three species of edible seaweedUlva, Palmaria and Laminaria(devil's apron)
Common stonewort (Chara vulgaris)
Predominantly aquatic plants | AutotrophicSimple thread like bodies with non-differentiated root, stem and leaves
bryon = moss in Latin
MossSmall plants that lack true roots, woody tissue and flowers.Grow in damp places.
Moss on walls
Bryophyta are amphibians of the plant kingdom
They lack vascular tissues | Have root like structures called rhizoids
pteri = fern in Greek
Multicellular | Have vascular tissues
Reproduce asexually by spores and sexually by forming gametes
gymno = naked | sperm = seed
Perennial | Evergreen | Woody
angio = covered| sperm = seed
The flowering plants are the most diverse group of land plants.
Eukaryotes | Multicellular | No cell wall | photosynthesisHetertropicAnimalia
Besides the animals photosynthesis
Well after animals
coelom = cavity within the body
notochord = flexible, rod-shaped supporting structure
porifera = pore bearer in Latin
Non-motile, attached to a solid support
Have pores all over the body which helps in circulating water to bring food and oxygenVery minimal differentiation and division in to tissues
Ostia = Pores
Osculum = Large opening at free end
Spicules = Tiny spike like structure
koilos = full bellied
Stay in colonies
They have radial symmetry
Simple tissue organization
Body is made of two layers of cells – diploblastic
platy = flat in Greek
Liver flukes are parasitic flatworms that live in the bile duct of various mammals. They cause a disease known as fasciolosis and can cause great economic losses in the sheep and cattle industry.
Tapeworms have no specialized digestive system but feed on the half- digested food in the intestines by direct absorption through their entire skin surface. Tapeworms can cause diarrhoea, weight loss and abdominal discomfort.
Non-parasitic flat worm that lives in lakes, streams, ponds, and other freshwater bodies.
They have bilateral symmetry and flat body structure
They have three layers of cells – triploblastic
No true body cavity (coelom)
Pinworm / Threadworm
The hookworm is a parasitic nematode that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human.
These parasites infect mammals, including humans, pigs, dogs and rats. Infection follows the consumption of raw or undercooked meat.
The pinworm also known as threadworm is a common human intestinal parasite, especially in children.
They have bilateral symmetry and round body structure
They have three layers of cells – triploblastic
They have a pseudocoelom
Generally parasitic disease causing worms
anellus = little ring in Latin
The earthworms diet mainly consists of organic substances in the soil, and its movement helps to break up the soil and improve its aeration.
Leech is a parasite has two suckers, one at each end of its body, that it uses to attach itself to the skin of its victim whilst it drinks their blood.
Sandworms are marine annelid worms that burrow in wet sand and mud using parapodia (un-joint limb-like outgrowths) and setae (bristles) for locomotion.
They have bilateral symmetry and segmented body structure
Reproduce sexually but sexes are not separate – hermaphrodite
They have three layers of cells – triploblastic
Have true coelom
árthron = joint and podós = foot
Probably the largest group of animals
They have bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic
Body is externally segmented and protected with chitinous exoskeleton
Sexes are separate
Coelom is filled with blood
molluscus = soft in Greek
They have bilateral symmetry and soft body that is generally covered with a shell
Open circulatory system and kidney like organs for excretion
skin like hedgehog in Greek
They are free living marine animals
They have tough spiny exoskeleton made up of calcium carbonate
They show radial symmetry
Marine or burrowing animals with soft, unsegmented, triploblastic body
They posses notochord only in embryonic stage