Classification of Organisms. Classifying Organisms. One important branch of biology investigates biodiversity , the variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Classification of Organisms
A way of grouping objects together based on similarities
In the beginning---plants were grouped based on people who ate them—
The history of the Tomato-1820 Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson announced that at noon on September 26, he would eat a basket of tomatoes in front of the Salem NY courthouse—aka “love apple”
Developed 1st method of classification
Classified into 2 major groups
Plants: herbs, shrubs or trees
Animals: According to where they lived: land, water or air
Methods still used today
Selected physical characteristics based on close relationships of organisms
Each category represents a level of grouping from larger, more general to smaller, more specific categories
Plants: based on reproductive structures
Animals: based on evolutionary traits
Invented the 2-word naming system to identify species
called BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE:
Bi (2) Nomial (name)
Genus: 1st word: consist of closely related species
Species: 2nd word: consist of description of the species.
Genus is ALWAYS capitalized & is 1st
Species is ALWAYS lowercase & is 2nd
BOTH ARE ITALICIZED OR UNDERLINED!!!
This mouse is one of several subspecies of old field mice which live only in coastal sand dune areas. Living isolated from other beach mice for thousands of years has allowed each subspecies to develop its own slightly unique characteristics suited to its particular beach environment.
Peromyscus polionotus ammobates
Other Subspecies: Perdido Key beach mouse, Choctawhatchee beach mouse, Santa Rosa beach mouse, and St. Andrews beach mouse. They differ from the ABM and each other in coloration and body size
Scientific & Common Names
Many organisms have common names that can be misleading.
Example: a sea horse is a fish, not a horse.
Also, it is confusing when a species has more than one common name.
Do not tell you how organisms are related or classified
Can be misleading
Confusion can occur when organisms have more than one name
All newly discovered species are given Latin names because it is no longer used
Organisms can be identified easily by using a dichotomous key
Animals around the world use the same identification system
A key is made up of sets of numbered statements. Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape or arrangement
Using a dichotomous key to identify money!
Phylogenetic Classification: Models
arms as long
How are living things Classified?
A group of organisms is called a taxon (plural, taxa
The smallest taxon is species. Organisms that look alike and successfully interbreed belong to the same species.
The next largest taxon is a genus—a group of similar species that have similar features and are closely related
Can you remember it this way?
The three domain names are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
All living things seem to be related by ancestry to one of these
the 3 domain system that is
still used today
Eukaryote that are not plants, animals or fungi.
Examples are amoebas, paramecium, euglenas, Seaweed, Diatoms…
Unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in the environment
There are around 70,000 species of fungi
Include puffballs, mushrooms, rusts, smuts, mildew, and molds.
Consist of eukaryotic, autotroph, multicellular plants that contain chloroplasts, use photosynthesis and have cell walls
There are more than 250,000 known species of plants
Animals are eukaryotic, multicellular heterotrophs that develop from embryos
Most have symmetrical body organization & move around their environment to find food
Nearly all are able to move from place to place.
Animal cells do not have cell walls