Classification of Organisms. Classifying Organisms. One important branch of biology investigates biodiversity , the variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems.
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In the beginning---plants were grouped based on people who ate them—
The history of the Tomato-1820 Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson announced that at noon on September 26, he would eat a basket of tomatoes in front of the Salem NY courthouse—aka “love apple”Classification is…
Developed 1st method of classification
Classified into 2 major groups
Plants: herbs, shrubs or trees
Animals: According to where they lived: land, water or airAristotle: Greek Philosopher
Methods still used today
Selected physical characteristics based on close relationships of organisms
Each category represents a level of grouping from larger, more general to smaller, more specific categories
Plants: based on reproductive structures
Animals: based on evolutionary traitsCarolus Linnaeus
called BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE:
Bi (2) Nomial (name)
Genus: 1st word: consist of closely related species
Species: 2nd word: consist of description of the species.Carolus Linnaeus
Species is ALWAYS lowercase & is 2nd
BOTH ARE ITALICIZED OR UNDERLINED!!!
F. domesticaRULES OF BINOMAL MONEMCLATURE
This mouse is one of several subspecies of old field mice which live only in coastal sand dune areas. Living isolated from other beach mice for thousands of years has allowed each subspecies to develop its own slightly unique characteristics suited to its particular beach environment.
Peromyscus polionotus ammobates
Other Subspecies: Perdido Key beach mouse, Choctawhatchee beach mouse, Santa Rosa beach mouse, and St. Andrews beach mouse. They differ from the ABM and each other in coloration and body size
Many organisms have common names that can be misleading.
Example: a sea horse is a fish, not a horse.
Also, it is confusing when a species has more than one common name.
Can be misleading
Confusion can occur when organisms have more than one name
All newly discovered species are given Latin names because it is no longer usedCommon Names
Animals around the world use the same identification system
A key is made up of sets of numbered statements. Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape or arrangementDichotomous Key
arms as long
The smallest taxon is species. Organisms that look alike and successfully interbreed belong to the same species.
The next largest taxon is a genus—a group of similar species that have similar features and are closely relatedOrder of Taxa
Can you remember it this way?
All living things seem to be related by ancestry to one of these3 Domains of Life
the 3 domain system that is
still used today
Examples are amoebas, paramecium, euglenas, Seaweed, Diatoms…Kingdom Protista
Unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in the environment
There are around 70,000 species of fungi
Include puffballs, mushrooms, rusts, smuts, mildew, and molds.Kingdom Fungi
Consist of eukaryotic, autotroph, multicellular plants that contain chloroplasts, use photosynthesis and have cell walls
There are more than 250,000 known species of plantsKingdom Plantae
Animals are eukaryotic, multicellular heterotrophs that develop from embryos
Most have symmetrical body organization & move around their environment to find food
Nearly all are able to move from place to place.
Animal cells do not have cell wallsKingdom Animalia