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VIRAL DISEASES. Presented by EMAD M. A. SAMARA, BVM&S. I- Foot and Mouth Disease. AKA (FMD, Aftosa) Causative agent (Virus; Picornaviridae) History (1921-29,1953,1967-68, 1981, 1993-97,and 2001) Public Health Significance (not a public health concern; 40 cases since 1921)

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VIRAL DISEASES

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VIRAL DISEASES

Presented by

EMAD M. A. SAMARA, BVM&S


I- Foot and Mouth Disease

  • AKA (FMD, Aftosa)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Picornaviridae)

  • History (1921-29,1953,1967-68, 1981, 1993-97,and 2001)

  • Public Health Significance (not a public health concern; 40 cases since 1921)

  • Species Affected (Domestic Cloven-Footed animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact)

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (100% / 1%; Higher in young animals)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs, Economically Devastating)


I- Foot and Mouth Disease

  • Diagnosis (Clinical Signs, Laboratory Tests)

  • Clinical Signs

    • In Cattle (Fever, Vesicles and Erosions on “feet, mouth, nares, muzzle, teats, hoof”, Excess salivation, Serous nasal discharge, Abortion, Death in young animals)

    • In sheep and goat (Mild, Fever, Oral lesions, Lameness)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases, Single or multiple vesicles, Dry Erosions, Tiger heart)

  • Treatment (No treatment available, Supportive and symptomatic, Vaccine available)

  • Prevention and Control (Import restrictions, Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, Vaccination)


II- Rinderpest

  • AKA (RPV,Cattle Plague)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Paramyxoviridae)

  • History (1184 BC, 1762, 1885, 1960’s,and 1992)

  • Public Health Significance (not a public health concern)

  • Species Affected (Domestic Cloven-Footed Animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact)

  • Mortality (100%; Susceptible stock are immature or young adults)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs, Destroys entire populations of cattle)


II- Rinderpest

  • Clinical Signs (Four forms)

    • Classic form (Fever, depression, anorexia, Constipation followed by hemorrhagic diarrhea, Serous to mucopurulent nasal/ocular discharge, Necrosis and erosion of the oral mucosa, Enlarged lymph nodes, Death in 6-12 days)

    • Peracute form (Young animals, high fever with congested mucous membranes, death in 2-3 days)

    • Subacute form (Mild clinical signs with low mortality)

    • Atypical form (Irregular fever, mild or no diarrhea, Immunosuppression leading to secondary infections)

  • Post Mortem Lesions

    • Esophagus(Brown and necrotic foci)

    • Omasum, Abomasum, Small intestineandcecum ( Tiger striping; Necrosis, edema and congestion )

    • Lymph nodes(Swollen and edematous)

    • Gall Bladder( Hemorrhagic mucosa)

    • Lungs(Emphysema, congestion, and areas of pneumonia)


II- Rinderpest

  • Treatment (No treatment available, Diagnosis usually means slaughter of effected animals, Supportive care with antibiotics in rare cases of valuable animals, Preventative measures are the keys)

  • Prevention and Control (Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, Vaccination)


III- Peste des Petits Ruminants

  • AKA (Pest of Small Ruminants, Stomatitis-Pneumoenteritis Syndrome, Pseudorinderpest, Contagious Pustular Stomatitis, Kata)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Paramyxoviridae)

  • History (1942, 1972, and 1990’s)

  • Public Health Significance (not a public health concern)

  • Species Affected (Principally goats and sheep, reported in captive wild ungulates, Cattle and pigs seroconvert but do not transmit disease)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact)

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (80-90% / 50-80%, can be up to 100%; More severe in young animals, poor nutrition, concurrent parasitic infections; Goats more susceptible than sheep)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs)


III- Peste des Petits Ruminants

  • Diagnosis (Clinical Signs, Laboratory Tests)

  • Clinical Signs (Acute fever, Anorexia, Upper respiratory discharge progressing to catarrhal exudate, Dyspnea Profuse diarrhea, Dehydration, Emaciation, Abortion and Death in 5-10 days)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Similar to Rinderpest; Carcass emaciation,Bronchopneumonia, “Zebra stripe” lesions of congestion in large intestine, Enlarged lymph nodes)

  • Treatment (No specific treatment, Drugs to control bacterial and parasitic complications may decrease mortality, Supportive care)

  • Prevention and Control (Import restrictions, Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, Vaccination)


IV- Malignant Catarrhal Fever

  • AKA (Malignant Head Catarrh, Gangrenous Coryza, Snotsiekte)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Gamma-herpesviridae)

  • History (1920’s, 1973, and 2002)

  • Public Health Significance (not a public health concern)

  • Species Affected (Domestic and wild Cloven-Footed Animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact; Some species ”Dead end hosts” )

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (30-40% / 1-100 %; depend on the host; Survival is rare; carrier species asymptomatic)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs; Variable)


IV- Malignant Catarrhal Fever

  • Clinical Signs (Five forms)

    • Acute form (High fever, Dyspnea, D.I.C., and Sudden death)

    • Head and eye form (Bilateral corneal opacity, Crusty muzzle and nares, Nasal discharge, Salivation, Erosions on the tongue and buccal mucosa)

    • Intestinal form (Inappetence, Dysphagia, Severe diarrhea)

    • Nervous form (Depression, Incoordination, head pressing, nystagmus, hyperesthesia)

    • Mild form (Inoculated animals recover)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Erosions on the tongue and soft and hard palate, Multiple erosions of intestinal epithelium, Enlarged lymph node, Diptheritic areas in the larynx, Edematous urinary bladder mucosa )


IV- Malignant Catarrhal Fever

  • Treatment (Supportive therapy, antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection, Recovered animals will remain virus carriers)

  • Prevention and Control (Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, No vaccine available)


V- Rift Valley Fever

  • Causative agent (Virus; Bunyaviridae)

  • History (1900’s, 1930, 1950-51, 1977-78, 1987, 1997-98, 2000-01, and 2003)

  • Public Health Significance (a public health concern; cause Flu-like illness, Retinopathy, Hemorrhagic fever, and Encephalitis; mortality ~1%, Treatment is supportive care)

  • Species Affected (Domestic and wild Cloven-Footed Animals, pet animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact; ”Dead end hosts” in human)

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (100% / 10 -100%, More severe in young animals “week vs. over week” )

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs)


V- Rift Valley Fever

  • Clinical Signs (High fever, Listless, Anorexia, ptyalism, High rate of abortion, Fetid diarrhea, Icterus, Mucopurulent nasal discharge, Acute death )

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Necrosis and Petechial hemorrhages in Hepatic, abomasum and peritoneal cavity; yellow, enlarged, friable Liver; aborted fetuses)

  • Treatment (No specific treatment, Drugs to control bacterial and parasitic complications, Supportive care Preventative measures are keys)

  • Prevention and Control (Immunization of ruminants, Avoid and control vectors, Personal protective equipment, Avoid contact with infected tissues and blood, Restrict movement of animals, Precautions when traveling)


VI- Bluetongue Virus

  • AKA (Sore Muzzle, Pseudo Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Muzzle Disease)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Reoviridae)

  • History (1997-2002)

  • Public Health Significance (Not a significant threat to humans; One human infection documented, Reasonable precautions should be taken, Treatment is supportive care)

  • Species Affected (Domestic and wild Cloven-Footed Animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact )

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (100% / 0-50% in Domestic Animals, and 80-90% in wild Animals)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs; Variable)


VI- Bluetongue Virus

  • Diagnosis (Clinical Signs, Laboratory Tests)

  • Clinical Signs (Fever, depression, salivation, Facial swelling, Oral erosions and ulcerations, Swollen, protuding, and Cyanotic Tongue “Blue-tongue”, Dyspnea, Panting, Nasal discharge, Hyperemia of muzzle, lips, ears, lameness “Coronitis”, abortion, “dummy” lambs)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Edematousface and ears, Dry, crusty exudate on nostrils, Vesicles, ulcers, necrosis in Mouth, Hyperemic coronary bands, Internal hemorrhaging, Hydranencephaly, cerebellar dysplasia)

  • Treatment (No specific treatment, Supportive care)

  • Prevention and Control (Control of vectors, Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, )


VII- Viral Encephalitis

  • Types (Western equine encephalitis (WEE), Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), La Crosse encephalitis (LAC), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), West Nile virus (WNV)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Flaviviridae)

  • History (1925 -2000, and 2003-04)

  • Public Health Significance (a public health concern; 1964-2002, 182 cases; cause Flu-like illness, Sudden fever, headache, myalgia, malaise, encephalitis, Death, mortality ~ 0.1%)

  • Species Affected (Equine species; and other animals)

  • Animal Transmission (indirect contact; Dead end hosts; equine and human )

  • Case-fatality rates (Equine: 90%, Human: 30-70%, other Variable)


VII- Viral Encephalitis

  • Diagnosis (Clinical Signs, Laboratory Tests)

  • Clinical Signs

    • Neurological (Paralysis of lips, facial muscles, tongue; Dysphagia; Hyperesthesia; Sound sensitive; torticollis; nystagmus; Seizures; Blindness; Ataxia)

    • Other (Flu-like signs, Fever, Depression, Anorexia, Muscle spasm, Skin twitching, Weakness, and recumbency)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Mild to moderate, diffuse, and non-suppurative meningoencephalitis; myocarditis)


VII- Viral Encephalitis

  • Treatment (No specific treatment, Supportive care, Fully licensed vaccine)

  • Prevention and Control (Vector Management “Surveillance, Source reduction, Personal protection, Biological control, Larvicide, and Adulticide”; Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, Vaccination)


VIII- Other Important Dz

  • Bovine Viral Diarrhea

  • Maedi-Visna

  • African Horse Sickness

  • Vesicular Stomatitis

  • Lumpy Skin Disease

  • Sheep and Goat Pox

  • Haemorrhagic Fever Disease


The End


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