Viral diseases
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VIRAL DISEASES. Presented by EMAD M. A. SAMARA, BVM&S. I- Foot and Mouth Disease. AKA (FMD, Aftosa) Causative agent (Virus; Picornaviridae) History (1921-29,1953,1967-68, 1981, 1993-97,and 2001) Public Health Significance (not a public health concern; 40 cases since 1921)

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VIRAL DISEASES

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Viral diseases

VIRAL DISEASES

Presented by

EMAD M. A. SAMARA, BVM&S


I foot and mouth disease

I- Foot and Mouth Disease

  • AKA (FMD, Aftosa)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Picornaviridae)

  • History (1921-29,1953,1967-68, 1981, 1993-97,and 2001)

  • Public Health Significance (not a public health concern; 40 cases since 1921)

  • Species Affected (Domestic Cloven-Footed animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact)

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (100% / 1%; Higher in young animals)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs, Economically Devastating)


I foot and mouth disease1

I- Foot and Mouth Disease

  • Diagnosis (Clinical Signs, Laboratory Tests)

  • Clinical Signs

    • In Cattle (Fever, Vesicles and Erosions on “feet, mouth, nares, muzzle, teats, hoof”, Excess salivation, Serous nasal discharge, Abortion, Death in young animals)

    • In sheep and goat (Mild, Fever, Oral lesions, Lameness)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases, Single or multiple vesicles, Dry Erosions, Tiger heart)

  • Treatment (No treatment available, Supportive and symptomatic, Vaccine available)

  • Prevention and Control (Import restrictions, Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, Vaccination)


Ii rinderpest

II- Rinderpest

  • AKA (RPV,Cattle Plague)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Paramyxoviridae)

  • History (1184 BC, 1762, 1885, 1960’s,and 1992)

  • Public Health Significance (not a public health concern)

  • Species Affected (Domestic Cloven-Footed Animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact)

  • Mortality (100%; Susceptible stock are immature or young adults)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs, Destroys entire populations of cattle)


Ii rinderpest1

II- Rinderpest

  • Clinical Signs (Four forms)

    • Classic form (Fever, depression, anorexia, Constipation followed by hemorrhagic diarrhea, Serous to mucopurulent nasal/ocular discharge, Necrosis and erosion of the oral mucosa, Enlarged lymph nodes, Death in 6-12 days)

    • Peracute form (Young animals, high fever with congested mucous membranes, death in 2-3 days)

    • Subacute form (Mild clinical signs with low mortality)

    • Atypical form (Irregular fever, mild or no diarrhea, Immunosuppression leading to secondary infections)

  • Post Mortem Lesions

    • Esophagus(Brown and necrotic foci)

    • Omasum, Abomasum, Small intestineandcecum ( Tiger striping; Necrosis, edema and congestion )

    • Lymph nodes(Swollen and edematous)

    • Gall Bladder( Hemorrhagic mucosa)

    • Lungs(Emphysema, congestion, and areas of pneumonia)


Ii rinderpest2

II- Rinderpest

  • Treatment (No treatment available, Diagnosis usually means slaughter of effected animals, Supportive care with antibiotics in rare cases of valuable animals, Preventative measures are the keys)

  • Prevention and Control (Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, Vaccination)


Iii peste des petits ruminants

III- Peste des Petits Ruminants

  • AKA (Pest of Small Ruminants, Stomatitis-Pneumoenteritis Syndrome, Pseudorinderpest, Contagious Pustular Stomatitis, Kata)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Paramyxoviridae)

  • History (1942, 1972, and 1990’s)

  • Public Health Significance (not a public health concern)

  • Species Affected (Principally goats and sheep, reported in captive wild ungulates, Cattle and pigs seroconvert but do not transmit disease)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact)

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (80-90% / 50-80%, can be up to 100%; More severe in young animals, poor nutrition, concurrent parasitic infections; Goats more susceptible than sheep)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs)


Iii peste des petits ruminants1

III- Peste des Petits Ruminants

  • Diagnosis (Clinical Signs, Laboratory Tests)

  • Clinical Signs (Acute fever, Anorexia, Upper respiratory discharge progressing to catarrhal exudate, Dyspnea Profuse diarrhea, Dehydration, Emaciation, Abortion and Death in 5-10 days)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Similar to Rinderpest; Carcass emaciation,Bronchopneumonia, “Zebra stripe” lesions of congestion in large intestine, Enlarged lymph nodes)

  • Treatment (No specific treatment, Drugs to control bacterial and parasitic complications may decrease mortality, Supportive care)

  • Prevention and Control (Import restrictions, Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, Vaccination)


Iv malignant catarrhal fever

IV- Malignant Catarrhal Fever

  • AKA (Malignant Head Catarrh, Gangrenous Coryza, Snotsiekte)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Gamma-herpesviridae)

  • History (1920’s, 1973, and 2002)

  • Public Health Significance (not a public health concern)

  • Species Affected (Domestic and wild Cloven-Footed Animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact; Some species ”Dead end hosts” )

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (30-40% / 1-100 %; depend on the host; Survival is rare; carrier species asymptomatic)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs; Variable)


Iv malignant catarrhal fever1

IV- Malignant Catarrhal Fever

  • Clinical Signs (Five forms)

    • Acute form (High fever, Dyspnea, D.I.C., and Sudden death)

    • Head and eye form (Bilateral corneal opacity, Crusty muzzle and nares, Nasal discharge, Salivation, Erosions on the tongue and buccal mucosa)

    • Intestinal form (Inappetence, Dysphagia, Severe diarrhea)

    • Nervous form (Depression, Incoordination, head pressing, nystagmus, hyperesthesia)

    • Mild form (Inoculated animals recover)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Erosions on the tongue and soft and hard palate, Multiple erosions of intestinal epithelium, Enlarged lymph node, Diptheritic areas in the larynx, Edematous urinary bladder mucosa )


Iv malignant catarrhal fever2

IV- Malignant Catarrhal Fever

  • Treatment (Supportive therapy, antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection, Recovered animals will remain virus carriers)

  • Prevention and Control (Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, No vaccine available)


V rift valley fever

V- Rift Valley Fever

  • Causative agent (Virus; Bunyaviridae)

  • History (1900’s, 1930, 1950-51, 1977-78, 1987, 1997-98, 2000-01, and 2003)

  • Public Health Significance (a public health concern; cause Flu-like illness, Retinopathy, Hemorrhagic fever, and Encephalitis; mortality ~1%, Treatment is supportive care)

  • Species Affected (Domestic and wild Cloven-Footed Animals, pet animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact; ”Dead end hosts” in human)

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (100% / 10 -100%, More severe in young animals “week vs. over week” )

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs)


V rift valley fever1

V- Rift Valley Fever

  • Clinical Signs (High fever, Listless, Anorexia, ptyalism, High rate of abortion, Fetid diarrhea, Icterus, Mucopurulent nasal discharge, Acute death )

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Necrosis and Petechial hemorrhages in Hepatic, abomasum and peritoneal cavity; yellow, enlarged, friable Liver; aborted fetuses)

  • Treatment (No specific treatment, Drugs to control bacterial and parasitic complications, Supportive care Preventative measures are keys)

  • Prevention and Control (Immunization of ruminants, Avoid and control vectors, Personal protective equipment, Avoid contact with infected tissues and blood, Restrict movement of animals, Precautions when traveling)


Vi bluetongue virus

VI- Bluetongue Virus

  • AKA (Sore Muzzle, Pseudo Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Muzzle Disease)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Reoviridae)

  • History (1997-2002)

  • Public Health Significance (Not a significant threat to humans; One human infection documented, Reasonable precautions should be taken, Treatment is supportive care)

  • Species Affected (Domestic and wild Cloven-Footed Animals)

  • Animal Transmission (Direct and indirect contact )

  • Morbidity/ Mortality (100% / 0-50% in Domestic Animals, and 80-90% in wild Animals)

  • Economic Impact (Direct and indirect costs; Variable)


Vi bluetongue virus1

VI- Bluetongue Virus

  • Diagnosis (Clinical Signs, Laboratory Tests)

  • Clinical Signs (Fever, depression, salivation, Facial swelling, Oral erosions and ulcerations, Swollen, protuding, and Cyanotic Tongue “Blue-tongue”, Dyspnea, Panting, Nasal discharge, Hyperemia of muzzle, lips, ears, lameness “Coronitis”, abortion, “dummy” lambs)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Edematousface and ears, Dry, crusty exudate on nostrils, Vesicles, ulcers, necrosis in Mouth, Hyperemic coronary bands, Internal hemorrhaging, Hydranencephaly, cerebellar dysplasia)

  • Treatment (No specific treatment, Supportive care)

  • Prevention and Control (Control of vectors, Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, )


Vii viral encephalitis

VII- Viral Encephalitis

  • Types (Western equine encephalitis (WEE), Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), La Crosse encephalitis (LAC), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), West Nile virus (WNV)

  • Causative agent (Virus; Flaviviridae)

  • History (1925 -2000, and 2003-04)

  • Public Health Significance (a public health concern; 1964-2002, 182 cases; cause Flu-like illness, Sudden fever, headache, myalgia, malaise, encephalitis, Death, mortality ~ 0.1%)

  • Species Affected (Equine species; and other animals)

  • Animal Transmission (indirect contact; Dead end hosts; equine and human )

  • Case-fatality rates (Equine: 90%, Human: 30-70%, other Variable)


Vii viral encephalitis1

VII- Viral Encephalitis

  • Diagnosis (Clinical Signs, Laboratory Tests)

  • Clinical Signs

    • Neurological (Paralysis of lips, facial muscles, tongue; Dysphagia; Hyperesthesia; Sound sensitive; torticollis; nystagmus; Seizures; Blindness; Ataxia)

    • Other (Flu-like signs, Fever, Depression, Anorexia, Muscle spasm, Skin twitching, Weakness, and recumbency)

  • Post Mortem Lesions (Mild to moderate, diffuse, and non-suppurative meningoencephalitis; myocarditis)


Vii viral encephalitis2

VII- Viral Encephalitis

  • Treatment (No specific treatment, Supportive care, Fully licensed vaccine)

  • Prevention and Control (Vector Management “Surveillance, Source reduction, Personal protection, Biological control, Larvicide, and Adulticide”; Confirmatory diagnosis, Authorities Notification, Quarantine, Disinfection, Vaccination)


Viii other important dz

VIII- Other Important Dz

  • Bovine Viral Diarrhea

  • Maedi-Visna

  • African Horse Sickness

  • Vesicular Stomatitis

  • Lumpy Skin Disease

  • Sheep and Goat Pox

  • Haemorrhagic Fever Disease


The end

The End


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