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Chapter 10. Proposals and Formal Reports. Understanding Business Proposals. Definition Proposal: a persuasive offer to solve problems, provide services, or sell equipment. Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition. Chapter 10, Slide 2.

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Proposals and Formal Reports


Understanding business proposals
Understanding Business Proposals

Definition

Proposal:a persuasive offer to solve problems, provide services, or sell equipment

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 2


Understanding Business Proposals

  • Kinds

  • InternalMay take the form of justification/ recommendation reports

  • External

    • Solicited: responding to RFP

    • Unsolicited: prospecting for business

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 3


Understanding Business Proposals

Kinds

Formallong, many parts

Informalshorter, six main parts

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 4


Informal proposals

Introduction

Background

Proposal

Staffing

Budget

Authorization request

Informal Proposals

Informal proposals

are usually presented in 2- to 4-page letters or memos and have

six main parts.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 5


Informal proposals six parts

Introduction: explains purpose, introduces author, and captures reader’s interest

Background: identifies problems and goals of project

Proposal: discusses planand schedule for solvingexisting problem

Informal Proposals: Six Parts

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 6


Informal proposals six parts1

Staffing: describes credentials and expertise of project leaders

Budget: indicates project costs

Authorization: asks for approval to proceed

Informal Proposals: Six Parts

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 7


Formal proposals

Formal proposals include all the basic parts of informal proposals but may have additional parts.

Formal Proposals

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 8


Formal proposals1

Possible additional parts: proposals but may have additional parts.

Copy of RFP

Letter or memo of transmittal

Abstract and/or executive summary

Title page

Table of contents

List of figures

Appendix

Formal Proposals

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 9


Parts of formal and informal proposals
Parts of Formal and Informal Proposals proposals but may have additional parts.

Appendix

Authorization

Budget

Staffing

Schedule

Background, problem, purpose

Introduction

List of figures

Table of contents

Title Page

Abstract or summary

Letter of transmittal

Copy of RFP (optional)

Generally appear in both

formal and informal proposals:

Optional in informal proposals:

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 10


Understanding business reports
Understanding Business Reports proposals but may have additional parts.

  • Definition

  • Business Report

  • Product of thorough investigation and analysis

  • Presents vital information to decision makers in business, industry, government, and education

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 11


Understanding business reports1
Understanding Business Reports proposals but may have additional parts.

Report Writing Process

  • Prepare to write.

  • Research secondary data.

  • Generate primary data.

  • Document data.

  • Organize, outline, anddiscuss data.

  • Illustrate data.

  • Present final report.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 12


Preparing to write
Preparing to Write proposals but may have additional parts.

  • Define the purpose of the project.

  • Limit the scope of the report.

    • What constraints influence the range of your project?

    • How will you achieve your purpose?

    • How much time and space do you have?

    • How accessible is your data?

    • How thorough should your research be?

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 13


Preparing to write1
Preparing to Write proposals but may have additional parts.

  • Write a statement of purpose to describe the following:

    • Goal

    • Significance

    • Limitations

  • Use action verbs.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 14


Statement of purpose
Statement of Purpose proposals but may have additional parts.

The purpose of this report is to explore possible locations for expansion. The report will consider economic data, general costs, consumer demand, and local competition. This research is significant because for our company to survive, we must grow. This report won’t consider specific start-up costs or traffic patterns, which will require additional research.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 15


Primary v secondary data
Primary v. Secondary Data proposals but may have additional parts.

Primary Data: come from firsthand experience and observation

Secondary Data: come from reading what others have experienced or observed and written down

Nearly every research projectbegins with investigatingsecondary data.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 16


Researching secondary data
Researching Secondary Data proposals but may have additional parts.

Electronic Databases

Collections of information accessible by computer and digital searchable

Examples:

ABI/Inform

Factiva

LexisNexis

EBSCO

Print Resources

  • Books

  • Periodicals

  • Bibliographic indexes such as Reader’s Guide

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 17


Researching secondary data1
Researching Secondary Data proposals but may have additional parts.

The Web

Product/service information

Public relations materials

Mission statements

Staff directories

Press releases

Company news

Article reprints

Stock and financial data

Employment records

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 18


Web search tips and techniques
Web Search Tips and Techniques proposals but may have additional parts.

Use two or three search tools.

Know your search tool.

Understand case sensitivity in keyword searches.

Use nouns as search wordsand as many as eight wordsin a query.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 19


Web search tips and techniques1
Web Search Tips and Techniques proposals but may have additional parts.

  • Combine keywords into phrases.

  • Omit articles and prepositions.

  • Use wildcards.

  • Proofread your search words.

  • Save the best.

  • Keep trying.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 20


Blogs and microblogs
Blogs and proposals but may have additional parts.Microblogs

  • Used by business researchers, students, politicians, and the media to share and gather information

  • Can provide honest consumer feedback fast and inexpensively

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 21


Social media
Social Media proposals but may have additional parts.

  • Used by businesses to communicate with customers, generate customer feedback, provide information to customers, and market products and services

  • Inexpensive source ofdata and research

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 22


Generating primary data

Experimenting proposals but may have additional parts.

Surveying

Observing

Interviewing

Generating Primary Data

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 23


Generating primary data1
Generating proposals but may have additional parts.Primary Data

  • Surveying

  • Advantages:

    • Economical and efficient way to gather data

    • Ability to reach large audiences

    • Data collected tends to be accurate

  • Disadvantages:

    • Response rate is generally low

    • Responders may not represent general population

    • Some responses are not truthful

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 24


Generating primary data2
Generating proposals but may have additional parts.Primary Data

  • Interviewing

    • Locate an expert.

    • Prepare for the interview.

    • Maintain a professional attitude.

    • Ask objective, friendly questions.

    • Watch the time.

    • End graciously.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 25


Generating primary data3
Generating proposals but may have additional parts.Primary Data

  • Observing

  • Plan ahead.

  • Get necessary permissions.

  • Be objective.

  • Quantify observations.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 26


Generating primary data4
Generating proposals but may have additional parts.Primary Data

  • Experimenting

  • Develop rigorous research design.

  • Pay attention to matching experimental and control groups.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 27


Documenting data
Documenting proposals but may have additional parts.Data

Why document data?

  • To strengthen your argument

  • To instruct the reader

  • To project yourself againstcharges of plagiarism

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 28


Documenting data1
Documenting proposals but may have additional parts.Data

What to Document

  • Another person's ideas, opinions, examples, or theory

  • Any facts, statistics, and graphics that are not common knowledge

  • Quotations of another person's actual spoken or written words

  • Paraphrases of another person's spoken or written words

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 29


Documenting data2
Documenting proposals but may have additional parts.Data

How to Paraphrase

  • Read original material until you comprehend its full meaning.

  • Write your own version without looking at the original.

  • Avoid using grammatical structure of the original.

  • Reread to make sure you have covered all main points.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 30


Documenting data3
Documenting proposals but may have additional parts.Data

Using Citation Formats

  • Modern Language Association (MLA)

  • American Psychological Association (APA)

    See Appendix A to learnhow to use these formats.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 31


Organizing Report Data proposals but may have additional parts.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 32


Organizing Report Data proposals but may have additional parts.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 33


Outlining report data

The main points used to outline a report often become the main headings of the written report.

Major headingscentered and typed in bold font

Second-level headingsstart at the left margin

Third-level headingsindented, becoming part of the paragraph

Outlining Report Data

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 34


Illustrating report data
Illustrating main headings of the written report.Report Data

Why use visual aids?

  • To clarify data

  • To create visual interest

  • To make numerical data meaningful

  • To make information more understandable and easierto remember

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 35


Illustrating report data1
Illustrating main headings of the written report.Report Data

Most common types of visual aids

  • Tables

  • Charts

  • Graphs

  • Photographs

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 36


Table main headings of the written report.

To show exact figures and values

Matching Visuals With Objectives

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 37


Bar Chart main headings of the written report.

To compare one item with others

Matching Visuals With Objectives

2009

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 38


Line Chart main headings of the written report.

To demonstrate changes in quantitative data over time

Matching Visuals With Objectives

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 39


Pie Chart main headings of the written report.

To visualize a whole unit and the proportions of its components

Matching Visuals With Objectives

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 40


Flowchart main headings of the written report.

To display a process or procedure

Matching Visuals With Objectives

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 41


Organization Chart main headings of the written report.

To define a hierarchy of elements or a set of relationships

Matching Visuals With Objectives

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 42


Photograph, Map, Illustration main headings of the written report.

To achieve authenticity, to spotlight a location, or to show an item in use

Matching Visuals With Objectives

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 43


Incorporating graphics in reports
Incorporating Graphics in Reports main headings of the written report.

  • Evaluate the audience.

  • Use restraint.

  • Be honest and ethical.

  • Introduce a graphic meaningfully.

  • Choose an appropriate caption or title style.

  • Give credit to source if appropriate.

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 44


Presenting the final formal report
Presenting the Final Formal Report main headings of the written report.

Prefatory Parts

  • Title page

  • Letter or memo of transmittal

  • Table of contents

  • List of figures

  • Executive summary

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 45


Presenting the final formal report1
Presenting the Final Formal Report main headings of the written report.

Body of Report

  • Introduction

    Background

    Problem or purpose

    Significance and scope

    Sources and methods

    Organization

  • Discussion of findings

  • Summary, conclusions, recommendations

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 46


Presenting the final formal report2
Presenting the Final Formal Report main headings of the written report.

Supplementary Parts of a Formal Report

  • Footnotes or endnotes

  • Works Cited, References, or Bibliography

  • Appendix

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 47


Parts of formal reports
Parts of Formal Reports main headings of the written report.

Bibliography

Appendix

Recommendations

Conclusions

Body

Introduction

Executive summary

List of figures

Table of contents

Letter of transmittal

Title page

Cover

Generally appear in both

formal and informal reports:

Optional in informal reports:

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 48


main headings of the written report.Success seems to be connected with action. Successful people keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don't quit.”

--Conrad HiltonAmerican hotelier

Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition

Chapter 10, Slide 49


END main headings of the written report.


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