Charismatic leadership
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Charismatic Leadership. Group member: Pee Kok Choon Jasdave Singh A/L Bhjan Singh Tuan Ikhtiari Bin Tuan Ismail Tan Wei Keat Ong Ban Hock Daud Bin Dalugamin. Outline. Definition of Charismatic Leadership Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership

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Charismatic Leadership

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Charismatic leadership

Charismatic Leadership

Group member:

Pee KokChoon

Jasdave Singh A/L Bhjan Singh

Tuan Ikhtiari Bin Tuan Ismail

Tan Wei Keat

Ong Ban Hock

Daud Bin Dalugamin


Outline

Outline

  • Definition of Charismatic Leadership

  • Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership

  • Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership

  • Other Conception of Charisma

  • Consequences of Charismatic Leadership


Definition of charismatic leadership

Definition of Charismatic Leadership

Pee KokChoon


Charisma

Charisma

  • Max Weber (1947)

    • Endowed with exceptional qualities

  • Occurs during a social crisis


Charismatic leadership1

Charismatic Leadership

“resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him”

Max Weber


Attribution theory of charismatic leadership

Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership

Jasdave Singh


Attribution theory of charismatic leadership1

ATTRIBUTION THEORY OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

What determines whether I see you as a charismatic leader?


Leader traits and behaviors

Leader Traits and Behaviors

Charismatic

  • If their vision is quite different

  • If they act in unconventional (new) ways to achieve their mission

  • If they make self-sacrifices and take personal risk to achieve their vision

  • Confident about their vision

  • If they use "visioning" and persuasive appeals to motivate others


Influence processes

Influence Processes

  • Followers desire to please and to imitate (model/copy) the leader.

  • Due to internalization of new values and beliefs by followers.

  • Important for followers to adopt the leader‘s attitudes and beliefs about the work they do


Facilitating conditions

Facilitating Conditions

Leaders are most likely to be perceived

  • when there is a crisis


Self concept theory of charismatic leadership

Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership

Tuan Ikhtiari


Types of charismatic leaders

Types of Charismatic Leaders

  • Visionary Charismatic Leaders

    • Through communication ability, the visionary charismatic leader links followers’ needs and goals to job or organizational goal.

  • Crisis-Based Charismatic Leaders

    • The crisis-produced charismatic leader communicates clearly what actions need to be taken and what their consequences will be.


Theory of charismatic leadership shamir house arthur 1993

Theory of Charismatic Leadership (Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993)

  • Transforms follower’s self-concepts; tries to link identity of followers to collective identity of the organization.

    • Establish this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards & de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards

    • Throughout process leaders

      • Express high expectations for followers

      • help followers gain sense of self-confidence and self-efficacy


Behavioral approach

Behavioral Approach

  • Use a set of behaviors to define it

  • Compare those that are charismatic with those who are not

  • House and Bass’ Propositions:

    • Leader Behaviors

    • Leader-Follower relations

    • Elements of the charismatic situation


Charismatic leadership

  • One of the most important aspects of charismatic and transformational leadership is the personal nature of the leader’s power.

    • Charismatic leaders are more sensitive to the emotional states of followers.

    • Charismatic leaders tend to be emotionally expressive, especially through such nonverbal channels as their eye contact, posture, movement, gestures, tone of voice, and facial expressions.


Charismatic leadership

  • Charisma is probably more a function of the followers’ reactions to a leader than of the leader’s personal characteristics.

  • Four unique characteristics of the reactions that followers have toward leaders:

    • Identification with the leader and the vision

    • Heightened emotional levels

    • Willing subordination to the leader

    • Feelings of empowerment


Charismatic leadership

  • Situational factors play an important role in determining whether a leader is perceived as charismatic.

  • Situational factors believed to affect charismatic leadership:

    • Crises

    • Task interdependence and social networks

    • Other situational characteristics

      • Organizations placing a premium on innovation

      • Outscoring and organizational downsizing

      • Time


Quotation

Quotation

  • “When dealing with people, let us remember we are not dealing with creatures of logic. We are dealing with creatures of emotion, creatures bustling with prejudices and motivated by pride and vanity.”

    • Dale Carnegie


Other conceptions of charisma

Other Conceptions of Charisma

Tan Wei Keat

Ong Ban Hock


Other conceptions of charisma1

Other Conceptions of Charisma

  • Psychodynamic Processes

  • Social Contagion and Charisma

  • Close and Distant Charisma

  • Routinization of Charisma


Psychodynamic processes

Psychodynamic Processes

  • Influence process

  • Personal identification ( regression, transference and projection)

  • Leader behaviors

  • Impression management

  • Role-model exemplary behavior

  • Show confidence in followers

  • Facilitating conditions

  • Crisis or disenchantment

  • Weak, dependent followers


Social contagion and charisma

Social Contagion and Charisma

  • Influence process

  • Social contagion

  • Leader behaviors

  • Unconventional behavior

  • Role-model exemplary behavior

  • Facilitating conditions

  • Crisis or disenchantment


Close and distant charisma

Close and Distant Charisma

  • According to Shamir (1995):

  • Distant Charismatics

    described in terms of substantive achievements.

  • Close Charismatics

    described in terms of follower motivation, task behavior, and identification with the leader.


Routinization of charisma

Routinization of Charisma

  • Routinization of Charisma: effort to perpetuate the charismatic influence on the organization after the leader depart.

    • Charisma is temporary phenomenon.

    • Charisma is rely on personal identification with the leader.


The methods of routinization of charisma

The Methods of Routinization of Charisma

  • Organize rites and ceremonies to designate a successor.

  • Adjust the administrative structure so that the vision of charismatic leader can be carried out.

  • Create a culture that inherit the vision of the leader by empowerment and internalization of followers.


Consequences of charismatic leadership

Consequences of Charismatic Leadership

Pee KokChoon

Daud


Positive and negative charismatics

Positive and negative charismatics

  • Consequences for follower

  • The leader values and personality

    • Personalized power orientation

    • Socialized power orientation

  • Follower characteristic

    • Self-esteem and self-identify


The dark side in charisma

The dark side in charisma

  • Impressed of the leader reduce suggestion by followers

  • Desire for leader acceptance avoid criticism by followers

  • Adoration by followers creates delusions of infallibility.

  • Excessive confidence and optimism blind the leader to real dangers.

  • Denial of problems and failures reduces organizational learning.


Charismatic leadership

  • Risky, grandiose projects are more likely to fail

  • Taking complete credit for successes alienates some key followers

  • Impulsive, nontraditional behavior creates enemies as well as believers

  • Dependence on the leader inhibits development of competent successors

  • Failure to develop successors creates an eventual leadership crisis


Ethical charismatic leader

Ethical Charismatic Leader

  • Uses power to serve others

  • Aligns vision with followers’ needs and aspirations

  • Considers and learns from criticism.

  • Encourages followers to question leader’s view

  • Coaches, develops and supports followers

  • Relies on internal moral standards


Unethical charismatic leader

Unethical Charismatic Leader

  • Uses power only for personal gain

  • Promotes personal vision

  • Censures critical or opposing views

  • Demands own decisions accepted without question

  • Insensitive to follower’s needs

  • Relies on convenient external moral standards


Effects of positives charismatics

Effects of positives charismatics

  • Followers are more likely to experience psychological growth and development of their abilities

  • Organizations are more likely to adapt a dynamics, hostile and competitive environment.


Reference

Reference

  • Yukl, G. 2010. Leadership in Organizations (7 ed.). Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

  • Insights of Leaderships. (n.d.). CharismatisticLeadeship. Retrieved from http://insightsonleadership.com/charismatic-leadership/

  • Wikipedia. (May, 2012). Charismatic authority. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charismatic_authority


Thank you

Thank You


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