Chapter 1 the human body
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Chapter 1: the Human Body. A & P 8/20/13. Anatomy. The study of the Structure and Shapes of the body and their relationships to one another. Gross Anatomy: The study of large easily observable structures of the body. example: Bones and Liver

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Chapter 1 the human body

Chapter 1:the Human Body

A & P



  • The study of the Structureand Shapes of the body and their relationships to one another.

    Gross Anatomy: The study of large easily observable structures of the body.

    example: Bones and Liver

    Microscopic Anatomy: The study of very small structures that require the naked eye to be aided


  • The study of how the body parts work or the Function of the body parts.

    • Neurophysiology- functions of the nervous system

    • Cardiac physiology- functions of the heart

Structural organization
Structural Organization

  • Starts with the simplest and becomes complex

  • Atoms

  • Molecules

  • Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs

  • Organ Systems

  • Organism

Integumentary system
Integumentary System

  • The external covering of the body, or skin.

  • Waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues and organs from harm.

  • Excretes salts and urea to help regulate body temperature and pressure

  • Houses pain receptors to alert us of what is happening on body surface.

Skeletal system
Skeletal System

  • Consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments and joints.

  • Supports the body and provides framework for the muscles to produce movement.

  • Also serves as a protective barrier for our most vital organs

    • Brain, heart

  • Stores minerals

Muscular system
Muscular System

  • Simply provide movement by contracting muscles.

Nervous system
Nervous system

  • Fastest acting control system.

  • Brain

  • Spinal cord

  • Nerves

  • And sensory receptors

Endocrine system
Endocrine system

  • Controls the bodies activities, but slower than the nervous system.

  • Endocrine glands produce chemicals called hormones that use the blood stream to get to specific organs

Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system

  • The heart and the blood vessels

  • Use blood as the transporting fluid to carry substances like oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other important substances to and from tissues cells where exchanges are made.

Lymphatic system
Lymphatic system

  • Complementary to that of cardiac system.

  • Includes lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs such as spleen and tonsils.

Respiratory system
Respiratory system

  • Keep the body consistently supplied with oxygen

Digestive system
Digestive system

  • A tube running through the body from the mouth to the anus.

  • Break down food and deliver the products to the blood for dispersal to the body cells

Urinary system
Urinary system

  • Remove the nitrogen-containing waste from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine.

Reproductive system
Reproductive system

  • Exists to produce offspring.



Necessary life functions
Necessary Life functions

  • Maintaining Boundaries

  • Movement

  • Responsiveness (irritability)

  • Digestion

  • Metabolism

  • Excretion

  • Reproduction

  • Growth

Must have to survive
Must have to survive…

  • Nutrients

    • Chemical energy

  • Oxygen

    • Required for chemical reactions to release energy from foods

    • 20% of air we breath is oxygen

  • Water

    • 60-80% of body weight

  • Body Temperature

    • 98.6 Degree F

  • Atmospheric Pressure

    • Exchange of O and CO2

    • Cellular Metabolism at high altitudes


  • The bodies ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing.

  • Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    • Receptor: Send information

    • Control Center: analyzes information and determines response

    • Effector: Provides the means for control center to respond

Homeostasis cont d
Homeostasis Cont’d

  • Negative Feedback Mechanisms

    • Causes stimulus to decline or end

  • Positive Feedback Mechanisms (rare in the body)

    • Enhances the stimulus

    • Blood Clotting and birth of a baby

Directional terms
Directional Terms

Superior/ Inferior





Proximal Distal


Directional terms1
Directional terms

Prone and Supine

Body cavities
Body Cavities

  • Dorsal body cavity

    • Cranial cavity

    • Spinal cavity

  • Ventral body cavity

    • Thoracic cavity

    • Diaphragm

    • Abdominopelvic

      • Abdominal

      • pelvic

Abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity

  • 4 Quadrants

    • Right Upper

    • Left Upper

    • Right Lower

    • Left Lower

Abdominopelvic regions
Abdominopelvic Regions

  • Umbilical Region

  • Epigastric Region

  • Hypogastric (pubic) Region

  • Right Iliac (inguinal) Region

  • Left Iliac (inguinal) Region

  • Right Lumbar Region

  • Left Lumbar Region

  • Right Hypochondriac Region

  • Left Hypochondriac Region

Anterior view of ventral body cavity organ s
Anterior View of Ventral Body Cavity Organ’s

  • Lungs

  • Liver

  • Heart

  • Diaphragm

  • Spleen

  • Stomach

  • Small Intestine

  • Large intestine (Colon)

  • Gallbladder

  • Appendix

  • Bladder