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Classification & the New Taxonomy. Chapters 25 – 35. Solar System. Finding commonality in variety . Earth. Organisms classified from most general group, domain , down to most specific, species domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species. No. America. U. S. N. Y. L. I.

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Classification & the New Taxonomy

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Classification the new taxonomy l.jpg

Classification & the New Taxonomy

Chapters 25 – 35


Finding commonality in variety l.jpg

Solar System

Finding commonality in variety

Earth

  • Organisms classified from most general group, domain, down to most specific, species

    • domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

No. America

U. S.

N. Y.

L. I.

Nassau Co.

use the mnemonic!

Levittown


Classification l.jpg

Eukaryote

Prokaryote

Archaebacteria&Bacteria

Classification

  • Old 5 Kingdom system

    • Monera, Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals

  • New 3 Domain system

    • reflects a greater understanding of evolution & molecular evidence

      • _______________________

      • _______________________

      • _______________________

        • ___________________

        • ___________________

        • ___________________

        • ___________________


  • Slide4 l.jpg

    Kingdom________________

    Kingdom________________

    Kingdom________________

    Kingdom____________

    Kingdom____________

    Kingdom____________


    The evolutionary perspective l.jpg

    The Evolutionary Perspective


    Kingdoms l.jpg

    Fungi

    Animalia

    Kingdoms

    absorptivenutrition

    ingestivenutrition

    Plantae

    autotrophs

    heterotrophs

    Protista

    uni- tomulticellular

    multicellular

    Eubacteria

    Archaebacteria

    prokaryotes

    eukaryotes

    Single-celled ancestor


    Prokaryotes l.jpg

    Domain

    Bacteria

    Domain

    Archaea

    Domain

    Eukarya

    Common ancestor

    Prokaryotes

    Domain Bacteria

    Domain Archaebacteria


    Bacteria live everywhere l.jpg

    Bacteria live EVERYWHERE!

    • Bacteria live in all ecosystems

      • on plants & animals

      • in plants & animals

      • in the soil

      • in depths of the oceans

      • in extreme cold

      • in extreme hot

      • in extreme salt

      • on the living

      • on the dead

    Microbes alwaysfind a way tomake a living!


    Bacterial diversity l.jpg

    Bacterial diversity

    rods and spheres and spirals… Oh My!


    Prokaryote structure l.jpg

    eukaryote cell

    prokaryotecell

    Prokaryote Structure

    • Unicellular

      • bacilli, cocci, spirilli

    • Size

      • 1/10 size of eukaryote cell

        • 1 micron (1um)

    • Internal structure

      • _________________________________

        • _____________________________

        • _____________________________

      • _________________________________

        • not wrapped around proteins


    Prokaryote vs eukaryote chromosome l.jpg

    Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Chromosome

    Prokaryote

    Eukaryote

    double helix


    Variations in cell interior l.jpg

    mitochondria

    chloroplast

    Variations in Cell Interior

    cyanobacterium(photosythetic) bacterium

    aerobic bacterium

    internal membranesfor respirationlike a mitochondrion(cristae)

    internal membranesfor photosynthesislike a chloroplast(thylakoids)


    Prokaryote cell wall structure l.jpg

    outer membrane of lipopolysaccharides

    Gram-negative bacteria

    Gram-positive bacteria

    peptide side

    chains

    outer

    membrane

    cell wall

    peptidoglycan

    cell wall

    peptidoglycan

    plasma membrane

    plasma

    membrane

    protein

    Prokaryote Cell Wall Structure

    That’simportant foryour doctorto know!

    peptidoglycan = polysaccharides + amino acid chains

    lipopolysaccharides = lipids + polysaccharides


    Prokaryotic metabolism l.jpg

    Prokaryotic metabolism

    • How do bacteria acquire their energy & nutrients?

      • ___________________

        • photosynthetic bacteria

      • ___________________

        • oxidize inorganic compounds

          • nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen…

      • ___________________

        • live on plant & animal matter

        • decomposers & pathogens


    Genetic variation in bacteria l.jpg

    Genetic variation in bacteria

    • Mutations

      • bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes

        • ______________________

      • error rate in copying DNA

        • 1 in every 200 bacteria has a mutation

        • you have billions of E. coli in your gut!

          • lots of mutation potential!

    • Genetic recombination

      • bacteria swap genes

        • ____________________

          • small supplemental circles of DNA

        • ____________________

          • direct transfer of DNA

    conjugation


    Bacteria as pathogens l.jpg

    Bacteria as pathogens

    • Disease-causing microbes

      • ___________________

        • wilts, fruit rot, blights

      • ____________________

        • tooth decay, ulcers

        • anthrax, botulism

        • plague, leprosy, “flesh-eating” disease

        • STDs: gonorrhea, chlamydia

        • typhoid, cholera

        • TB, pneumonia

        • lyme disease


    Bacteria as beneficial necessary l.jpg

    Bacteria as beneficial (& necessary)

    • Life on Earth is dependent on bacteria

      • ___________________________

        • recycling of nutrients from dead to living

      • ___________________________

        • only organisms that can fix N from atmosphere

          • needed for synthesis of proteins & nucleic acids

          • plant root nodules

      • ___________________________

        • digest cellulose for herbivores

          • cellulase enzyme

        • produce vitamins K & B12 for humans

      • _________________________

        • from yogurt to insulin


    Slide18 l.jpg

    Got any Questions??

    Ask da’ BacterialBoss!


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