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Chapter Intro-page 442. What You’ll Learn. You will identify and compare various methods of classification. You will distinguish among six kingdoms of organisms. 17.1 Section Objectives – page 443. Section Objectives:. Evaluate the history, purpose, and methods of taxonomy.

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Chapter intro page 442

Chapter Intro-page 442

What You’ll Learn

You will identify and compare various methods of classification.

You will distinguish among six kingdoms of organisms.


17 1 section objectives page 443

17.1 Section Objectives – page 443

Section Objectives:

  • Evaluate the history, purpose, and methods of taxonomy.

  • Explain the meaning of a scientific name.

  • Describe the organization of taxa in a biological classification system.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 449

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

How Classification Began

  • Biologists want to better understand organisms so they organize them.

  • One tool that they use to do this is classification—the grouping of objects or information based on similarities.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4491

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

How Classification Began

  • Taxonomy (tak SAH nuh mee) is the branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics.

Click image to view movie.

  • Biologists who study taxonomy are called taxonomists.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4492

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Aristotle’s system

  • The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) developed the first widely accepted system of biological classification.

  • He classified all the organisms he knew into two groups: plants and animals.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4493

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Aristotle’s system

  • He subdivided plants into three groups, herbs, shrubs, and trees, depending on the size and structure of a plant.

  • He grouped animals according to various characteristics, including their habitat and physical differences.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4494

Aristotle’s system aka

Artificial Classification System

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

  • According to his system, birds, bats, and flying insects are classified together even though they have little in common besides the ability to fly.

  • As time passed, more organisms were discovered and some did not fit easily into Aristotle’s groups, but many centuries passed before Aristotle’s system was replaced.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4495

Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

  • In the late eighteenth century, a Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), developed a method of grouping organisms that is still used by scientists today.

  • Linnaeus’s system was based on physical and structural similarities of organisms.

  • As a result, the groupings revealed the relationships of the organisms.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4496

Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

  • Eventually, some biologists proposed that structural similarities reflect the evolutionary relationships of species.

  • This way of organizing organisms is the basis of modern classification systems.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4497

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature

  • Modern classification systems use a two-word naming system called binomial nomenclature that Linnaeus developed to identify species.

  • In this system, the first word identifies the genus of the organism.

  • A genus (JEE nus) (plural, genera) consists of a group of similar species.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4498

Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

  • The second word, which sometimes describes a characteristic of the organism, is called the specific epithet.

  • Thus, the scientific name for each species, referred to as the species name, is a combination of the genus name and specific epithet.

Homo sapiens


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 4499

Scientific and common names

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

  • Taxonomists are required to use Latin because the language is no longer used in conversation and, therefore, does not change.

  • Scientific names should be italicized in print and underlined when handwritten.

  • The first letter of the genus name is uppercase, but the first letter of the specific epithet is lowercase.

Passer domesticus


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44910

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Scientific and common names

  • Many organisms have common names. However, a common name can be misleading. For example, a sea horse is a fish, not a horse.

  • In addition, it is confusing when a species has more than one common name.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44911

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Taxonomy: A framework

  • Taxonomists group similar organisms, both living and extinct. Classification provides a framework in which to study the relationships among living and extinct species.

  • For example, biologists study the relationship between birds and dinosaurs within the framework of classification.

Archaeopteryx


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44912

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Taxonomy: A useful tool

  • Classifying organisms can be a useful tool for scientists who work in agriculture, forestry, and medicine.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44913

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Taxonomy: A useful tool

  • Anyone can learn to identify many organisms using a biological (dichotomous) key.

  • A key is made up of sets of numbered statements. Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape or arrangement.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44914

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Taxonomy and the economy

  • It often happens that the discovery of new sources of lumber, medicines, and energy results from the work of taxonomists.

  • The characteristics of a familiar species are frequently similar to those found in a new, related species.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44915

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Taxonomy and the economy

  • For example, if a taxonomist knows that a certain species of pine tree contains chemicals that make good disinfectants, it’s possible that another pine species could also contain these useful substances.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44916

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

How Living Things Are Classified

  • In any classification system, items are categorized, making them easier to find and discuss.

  • Although biologists group organisms, they subdivide the groups on the basis of more specific criteria.

  • A group of organisms is called a taxon (plural, taxa).


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44917

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Taxonomic rankings

  • Organisms are ranked in taxa that range from having very broad characteristics to very specific ones.

  • The broader a taxon, the more general its characteristics, and the more species it contains.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44918

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Taxonomic rankings

  • The smallest taxon is species. Organisms that look alike and successfully interbreed belong to the same species.

  • The next largest taxon is a genus—a group of similar species that have similar features and are closely related.


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44919

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Taxonomic rankings

  • Compare the appearance of a lynx, Lynx rufus, a bobcat, Lynx canadensis, and a mountain lion, Panthera concolor.

Mountain

lion

Lynx

Bobcat


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 44920

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Domain

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Chordata

Phylum

Class

Mammalia

Carnivora

Order

Felidae

Family

Lynx

Genus

Species

Lynx

rufus

Lynx

canadensis

Lynx

Bobcat


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 459

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

How are relationships determined?

  • Relationships are determined on the basis of similarities in structure, breeding, behavior, geographical distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4591

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Structural similarities

  • Structural similarities among species reveal relationships.

  • The presence of many shared physical structures implies that species are closely related and may have evolved from a common ancestor.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4592

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Structural similarities

  • For example, plant taxonomists use structural evidence to classify dandelions and sunflowers in the same family, Asteraceae, because they have similar flower and fruit structures.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4593

Breeding behavior

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

  • Sometimes, breeding behavior provides important clues to relationships among species.

  • For example, two species of frogs, Hyla versicolor and Hyla chrysoscelis, live in the same area and look similar. During the breeding season, however, there is an obvious difference in their mating behavior.

  • Scientists concluded that the frogs were two separate species.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4594

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Geographical distribution

Probing

Bills

Grasping

Bills

Crushing

Bills

Feeders

Insect

Cactus

Seed

Feeders

Parrot

Bills

Feeders

Fruit

Feeders

Ancestral Species


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4595

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Geographical distribution

  • These finches probably spread into different niches on the volcanic islands and changed over time into many distinct species. The fact that they share a common ancestry is supported by their geographical distribution in addition to their genetic similarities.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4596

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Chromosome comparisons

  • Both the number and structure of chromosomes, as seen during mitosis and meiosis, provide evidence about relationships among species.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4597

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Chromosome comparisons

  • For example, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, and broccoli look different but have chromosomes that are almost identical in structure.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4598

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Biochemistry

  • Powerful evidence about relationships among species comes from biochemical analyses of organisms.

  • Closely related species have similar DNA sequences and, therefore, similar proteins.

  • In general, the more inherited nucleotide sequences that two species share, the more closely related they are.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 4599

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Life’s Six

Kingdoms


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45910

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

The Six Kingdoms of Organisms

  • The six kingdoms of organisms are archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

  • In general, differences in cellular structures and methods of obtaining energy are the two main characteristics that distinguish among the members of the six kingdoms.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45911

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Prokaryotes

  • The prokaryotes, organisms with cells that lack distinct nuclei bounded by a membrane, are microscopic and unicellular.

  • Some are heterotrophs and some are autotrophs.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45912

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Prokaryotes

  • In turn, some prokaryotic autotrophs are chemosynthetic, whereas others are photosynthetic.

Ameoba

  • There are two kingdoms of prokaryotic organisms: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45913

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Prokaryotes

  • There are several hundred species of known Archaebacteria and most of them live in extreme environments such as swamps, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, and seawater evaporating ponds.

  • Most of these environments are oxygen-free.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45914

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Prokaryotes

  • All of the other prokaryotes, about 5000 species of bacteria, are classified in Kingdom Eubacteria.

  • Eubacteria have very strong cell walls and a less complex genetic makeup than found in archaebacteria or eukaryotes.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45915

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Prokaryotes

  • They live in most habitats except the extreme ones inhabited by the archaebacteria.

  • Although some eubacteria cause diseases, such as strep throat and pneumonia, most bacteria are harmless and many are actually helpful.

Staphylococcus


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45916

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

A Paramecium

Protista: A diverse group

Anal

pore

Cilia

  • Kingdom Protista contains diverse species that share some characteristics.

Oral

groove

  • A protist is a eukaryote that lacks complex organ systems and lives in moist environments.

Gullet

Contractile

vacuole

Micronucleus and

macronucleus


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45917

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Protista

  • Although some protists are

  • unicellular, others are multicellular.

Lycogala

  • Some are plantlike autotrophs, some are animal-like heterotrophs, and others are funguslike heterotrophs that produce reproductive structures like those of fungi.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45918

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Fungi: Earth’s decomposers

  • Organisms in Kingdom Fungi are heterotrophs that do not move from place to place.

  • A fungus is either a unicellular or multicellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in the environment.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45919

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Fungi: Earth’s decomposers

  • There are more than 50,000 known species of fungi.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45920

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Plants: Multicellular oxygen producers

  • All of the organisms in Kingdom Plantae are multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes.

  • None moves from place to place.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45921

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Plants: Multicellular oxygen producers

  • A plant’s cells usually contain chloroplasts and have cell walls composed of cellulose.

  • Plant cells are organized into tissue that, in turn, are organized into organs and organ systems.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45922

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Plants: Multicellular oxygen producers

  • There are more than 250,000 known species of plants.

  • Although you may be most familiar with flowering plants, there are many other types of plants, including mosses, ferns, and evergreens.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45923

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Animals: Multicellular consumers

  • Animals are multicellular heterotrophs.

  • Nearly all are able to move from place to place.

  • Animal cells do not have cell walls.


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 45924

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Animals: Multicellular consumers

  • Their cells are organized into tissues that, in turn, are organized into organs and complex organ systems.


The species and the kind

The Species and the Kind

  • Linnaeus - first thought number of species was set at creation

    • later thought they could change

  • He and his students named about 10,000 plants and animals


Today

Today

  • There are now over 1.5 million known living species

  • It is estimated that there are 5 to 10 million undiscovered


The species

The Species

  • The definition for species is not adequate

  • Two things to consider when defining a species

    • Member of a species are structurally similar but do have a degree of variation

    • Members of a species can interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring under natural conditions


Problems with species concept

Problems with Species Concept

  • 1) Artificial characteristics

    • environment can affect an organisms characteristics (ex - tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum)

    • a cross between two species makes a new combination, not a new species (ex - coyote + dog = coydog)


Chapter intro page 442

  • 2) Interbreeding

    • Some species do not reproduce sexually

    • Organisms of the same species may not necessarily be able to interbreed (St. Bernard and Chihuahua; the green spotted grass frog)

    • ecotypes - organisms that appear the same but are suited for one environment and often cannot interbreed


Chapter intro page 442

  • God’s primary purpose in creating different organisms was to have them perform specific functions in specific ways in specific places, not to make them easy to classify.


The biblical kind

The Biblical Kind

  • Organisms that reproduce after their own kind (Gen 1:20-25)

  • Linnaeus was the first to use the term species (kind-latin)


Chapter intro page 442

  • Some species can successfully interbreed making a hybrid organism – evoltion or not?


Natural system of classification

Natural System of Classification

  • A system based on biochemical similarities

  • Example - Humans, frogs, gorillas

  • As researchers decode genomes they hope to show the relationships between organsims


Migration and adaptation are not evolution

Migration and Adaptation are not Evolution

  • Migration - the moving of organisms from one area to another

  • Adaptation - the change of an organism that allows it to survive in a new environment (limited to the organisms genetic makeup)


Section 2 check

Section 2 Check

Question 1

Which of the following is NOT a way to determine evolutionary relationships?

A. chromosome comparisons

B. biochemistry

C. specific epithets

D. geographical distribution

C


Section 2 check1

Section 2 Check

Question 2

How does a cladogram differ from a pedigree?

Answer

Pedigrees show the direct ancestry of an organism from two parents. Cladograms show a probable evolution from an ancestral group.


Section 2 check2

Section 2 Check

Question 3

Why do taxonomists use Latin names for classification?

Answer

Latin is no longer used in conversation and, therefore, does not change.


Section 2 check3

Section 2 Check

Question 5

What is the relationship between cladistics and taxonomy?

Answer

Cladistics is one kind of taxonomy that is based on phylogeny.


Chapter summary 17 1

Chapter Summary – 17.1

Classification

  • Although Aristotle developed the first classification system, Linnaeus laid the foundation for modern classification systems by using structural similarities to organize species and by developing a binomial naming system for species.

  • Scientists use a two-word system called binomial nomenclature to give species scientific names.


Chapter summary 17 11

Chapter Summary – 17.1

Classification

  • Classification provides an orderly framework in which to study the relationships among living and extinct species.

  • Organisms are classified in a hierarchy of taxa: domain, kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus, and species.


Chapter summary 17 2

Chapter Summary – 17.2

The Six Kingdoms

  • Biologists use similarities in body structures, breeding behavior, geographic distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry to determine evolutionary relationships.


Chapter summary 17 21

Chapter Summary – 17.2

The Six Kingdoms

  • Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria contain only unicellular prokaryotes.

  • Kingdom Protista contains eukaryotes that lack complex organ systems.

  • Kingdom Fungi includes heterotrophic eukaryotes that absorb their nutrients.


Chapter summary 17 22

Chapter Summary – 17.2

The Six Kingdoms

  • Kingdom Plantae includes multicellular eukaryotes that are photosynthetic.

  • Kingdom Animalia includes multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs with cells that lack cell walls.


Chapter assessment

Chapter Assessment

Question 1

Domain

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Chordata

Phylum

Class

Mammalia

Carnivora

Order

Felidae

Family

Lynx

Genus

Species

Lynx

canadensis

Lynx

rufus

Lynx

Bobcat


Chapter assessment1

Chapter Assessment

Both organisms are members of the same kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, and genus but belong to different species.


Chapter assessment2

Chapter Assessment

Question 2

Which taxon contains the others?

A. order

B. class

C. genus

D. family

The answer is B.


Chapter assessment3

Chapter Assessment

Question 3

Which of the following pairs of terms is NOT related?

A. specific epithet – genus

B. binomial nomenclature – Linnaeus

C. biology – taxonomy

D. Aristotle – evolutionary relationships

The answer is D.


Chapter assessment4

Chapter Assessment

Question 4

Domain

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Chordata

Phylum

Class

Mammalia

Carnivora

Order

Felidae

Family

Lynx

Genus

Species

Lynx

canadensis

Lynx

rufus

Lynx

Bobcat


Chapter assessment5

Chapter Assessment

Domain

Eukarya

Bobcats are more closely associated with lynxes as cats than as mammals.

Kingdom

Animalia

Chordata

Phylum

Class

Mammalia

Carnivora

Order

Felidae

Family

Lynx

Genus

Species

Lynx

canadensis

Lynx

rufus

Lynx

Bobcat


Chapter assessment6

Chapter Assessment

Question 5

What two main characteristics distinguish the members of the six kingdoms?

The two characteristics are differences in cellular structures and methods of obtaining energy.


Chapter assessment7

Chapter Assessment

Question 6

Which of the following is NOT true of both the animal and plant kingdoms?

A. both contain organisms made up of cells

B. tissues are organized into organs

C. cells are organized into tissues

D. cells contain cell walls

D


Chapter assessment8

Chapter Assessment

Question 7

Which of the following describes a fungus?

A. autotrophic prokaryote

B. unicellular or multicellular heterotroph

C. unicellular autotroph

D. heterotrophic prokaryote


Chapter assessment9

Chapter Assessment

The answer is B, unicellular or multicellular heterotroph.


Chapter assessment10

Chapter Assessment

Question 8

What is the definition of a species?

Answer:

a group with members that resemble each other and that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring


Question 9

Question 9

What is meant by the biblical kind?

Answer:

organism that reproduces after its own kind


Question 10

Question 10

  • What is a natural classification system?

Answer:

a system based on biochemical similarities


Chapter intro page 442

Tropical Red-eyed tree frog

End of Chapter 9 Show


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