Hormones that affect metabolism
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Hormones That Affect Metabolism. Thyroid Gland. Located at the base of neck Below larynx, in front of the trachea Made up of two lobes, joined by a band of tissue. Pg 400. Thyroid Gland. Produces hormones thyroxine (T4 ) Note: the 4 refers to the 4 iodine molecules in the hormone

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Thyroid gland
Thyroid Gland

  • Located at the base of neck

  • Below larynx, in front of the trachea

  • Made up of two lobes, joined by a band of tissue

Pg 400


Thyroid gland1
Thyroid Gland

  • Produces hormones thyroxine (T4)

  • Note: the 4 refers to the 4 iodine molecules in the hormone

  • Increases the rate at which the body metabolises fats, proteins and carbohydrates for energy.


receptors in hypothalamus

Stimulus

Monitor

Low metabolic rate

Coordinating Center

Hypothalamus  TRH

Pituitary  TSH

Thyroid  thyroxine (T4)

Response

Regulators

↑ metabolism

  • Body cells - ↑ rate of cellular respiration


Thyroid gland2
Thyroid Gland

  • Produces hormone CALCITONIN

  • Released in response to high calcium levels in blood


chemoreceptors in blood

Stimulus

Monitor

High blood calcium

Coordinating Center

Parathyroid – inhibits PTH

Thyroid – releases calcitonin

Regulators

Response

↓ blood calcium

  • Kidneys - ↑ Ca2+ in urine

  • Bones – Ca2+ deposited


Parathyroid glands
Parathyroid Glands

  • Small glands attached to thyroid

  • Produce parathyroid hormone (PTH)

  • PTH is released in response to low blood calcium


chemoreceptors in blood

Stimulus

Monitor

low blood calcium

Coordinating Center

Parathyroid releases PTH

Regulators

Response

  • Kidneys - retain Ca2+

  • Intestine – retain Ca2+

  • Bones – release Ca2+

↑ blood calcium


Thyroid disorders
Thyroid Disorders

Hypothyroidism

  • thyroid produces extremely low quantities of thyroxine

  • When in children, produces kids with cretinism – stocky and shorter than avg


Thyroid disorders1
Thyroid Disorders

Hypothyroidism

  • when in adults  symptoms include tiredness, slow pulse, puffy skin, hair loss, weight gain


Thyroid disorders2
Thyroid Disorders

Hyperthyroidism

  • overproduction of thyroxine

  • Symptoms – anxiety, insomnia, heat intolerance, irregular heartbeat, weight loss


Thyroid disorders3
Thyroid Disorders

  • Graves Disease – a severe state of hyperthyroidism

  • Immune system attacks the thyroid

  • Symptoms – muscles around eyes swell, causes protruding eyes (interferes with vision)


Thyroid disorders4
Thyroid Disorders

Goitre

  • Occur when insufficient iodine in diet prevents thyroxine from being made

  • The feedback loop does not function properly

  • TSH relentless stimulates the thyroid

  • Produces an enlarged gland


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