MILK BASICS. Chemical components. Milk composition. LIPIDS. Organised into globules (1-10 μ m ) having membranes of phospholipid-protein complexes 200 kinds of fatty acids
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Staphylococus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae, Corynebacerium bovis, Mycoplasma bovis and other Mycoplasma spp., Streptococcus dysgalactiae
Skin of the animal, teat cup, rubber,
End of milking
(Hand of the workers)
Alveolar epithel cells destroyed
Subclinical (common), clinical form
The incidence of staphylococcal mastitis is increasing (as incidence of streptococcal mastitis decreasing). About 1-1.5 million staphylococci per gram of food must be present for producing sufficient amount of enterotoxin required to induce symptoms in man.
Below 10 °C, no growth and no toxin production take place.
The toxin is heat-stable.
Symptomless humans carry the causative in the nose, and skin but the udder and skin of dairy animal is also infected (human origin). Milkworkers with cuts, boils and other lesions on hand should not be allowed to handle milk or milk products.
The main-line of protection, however, is to prevent the growth of staphylococci by cooling below 8 ° C as soon as possible.
Typically from animal to animal
No serious clinical symptoms
Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from milk and one of the vehicles of the infection (to humans) is considered to be milk.
The organism is able to grow in milk at ambient temperatures.
The control of milk-borne infection with Listeria depends on adequate heat-treatment: 72 °C for 15 sec is sufficient.
Many cases of human listeriosis occurred in the last years following the consumption of different types of soft cheeses which are made from raw milk.
Streptococcus uberis and other fecal streptococci
E. coli and Klebsiella
Acute, peracute alveolar mastitis
Watery, yellow-withish flakes
Chronic or subclinical mastitis
Due to widespread use of antibiotics in mastitis may lead to increase in incidence of mycotic mastitis. No direct evidence for milk-borne infection to man.
Nocardia asteroides and braziliensis, Candida tropicalis, albicans, krusei were isolated from mastitic udder and from milk. They may survive usual pasteurization processes