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1. Chapter 3 Seasons and Weather
2. solstice The day on which the sun is at its farthest north or farthest south latitude
3. equinox When the day and night are the same length; happens twice a year
4. climate Weather at a particular location over a long period of time.
5. weather The atmosphere at a particular location and time.
6. Precipitation Water droplets falling in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or hail
7. Rain shadow The land on the leeward sides of hills or mountains
8. Hurricane Storms that form over warm, tropical ocean
9. Typhoon Hurricane in Asia
10. Tornado Powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling air
11. blizzard A heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 32 mph
12. drought A long period without rain or very minimal rainfall
13. Section 2 climate
14. convection The transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motion of the air
15. El Nino The warming of waters off the west coast of South America.
16. Greenhouse Effect The theory that gases released by burning coal and petroleum traps of solar energy, causing higher temperatures
17. Latitude A measurement of system of the earth that can be divided into 3 zones low or tropical, middle or temperate, and high or polar
18. Ocean Current A large circular system of flowing water that moderates a region’s climate
19. Section 3 World climates Regions
20. Climates The two most significant factors in defining different climates are precipitation and Temperature.
21. Types of Climates
22. Tropical Wet Always hot with lots of rain. South America
23. Tropical Wet and Dry This sub-region has a rainy season in summer and a dry winter. It is cooler in the dry season and warmer in the wet season
24. Semiarid This sub-region does receive precipitation, just very much of it. Summers are hot and Winters are mild to cold.
25. Desert Receive less then 10” of rainfall a year.
Hot deserts (Sahara) very hot days and dropping temp. at night
Cool/cold deserts (mid latitudes of N. Hemisphere). Winters very cold
26. Mediterranean Summers dry and hot winters cool and rainy
27. Marine West Coast Near the Ocean cloudy, foggy and damp. Temperatures are moderate
28. Humid Subtropical Summers long hot and humid
Winters mild to cool
29. Humid Continental Great variety of temperature and rainfall.
Definite four seasons
30. Sub-arctic Huge temperature difference between winter and summer.
Summers short and cool
Winters long and always cold, temp below freezing for five to eight months
31. Tundra The flat treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean. Summer last only a few weeks and temps only reach into the 40’s.
32. Ice cap Snow and ice and permanent freezing temp.
33. Highlands Varies with latitude and elevation
34. Section 4 Soils and Vegetation
35. Ecosystem Is an interdependent community of plants and animals.
36. Biome An ecosystem region that is further divided into forest, grassland, desert, and tundra
37. Deciduous trees Broadleaf trees such as maple, cottonwood, oak, and birch
38. Coniferous trees Needle leaf trees such as pine, fir these trees are cone bearing trees.
39. Savanna Tropical grasslands that are treeless plains
40. Steppe Grassland in Northern Hemisphere also known as the prairie.