Nutritional regulation of growth
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NUTRITIONAL REGULATION OF GROWTH. ANSC 590 ANIMAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. NUTRIENT PARTITIONING. Plane of nutrition Homeostasis Maintenance Growth Production Repro, milk, finishing, etc. NUTRIENT PARTITIONING. Dietary energy Energy density

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NUTRITIONAL REGULATION OF GROWTH

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Nutritional regulation of growth

NUTRITIONAL REGULATION OF GROWTH

ANSC 590 ANIMAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


Nutrient partitioning

NUTRIENT PARTITIONING

  • Plane of nutrition

  • Homeostasis

  • Maintenance

  • Growth

  • Production

    • Repro, milk, finishing, etc.


Nutrient partitioning1

NUTRIENT PARTITIONING

  • Dietary energy

  • Energy density

  • Order of priority for energy on physiological systems

    • Nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and reproductive

    • Skeletal, muscle, adipose


Nutrient partitioning2

NUTRIENT PARTITIONING

  • Adipose tissues

    • Mesenteric

    • Perirenal

    • Subcutaneous or intermuscular

    • Intramuscular or marbling


Nutrient partitioning3

NUTRIENT PARTITIONING

  • Homeorhesis – longterm coordination of nutrient partitioning

  • Positive energy balance

    • When food is plentiful to take care of maintenance, growth and fattening

    • Feed efficiency is in favor of greater muscle deposition

    • Efficiency is in favor of lactation over dry cow

  • Negative energy balance – when animals don’t have adequate energy for maintenance and production needs

    • Loss of weight and reduced performance


Undernutrition

Undernutrition

  • Pre-natal: fetal concentration of nutrients are greater than that of maternal plasma

  • Low birth weights are often due to undernourishment during fetal development

  • Table 11. 1 and 11.2

    • Ex. Runt piglets


Undernutrition1

Undernutrition

  • Runt pigs- less weight with smaller vital organs, less DNA in skeletal muscle with less muscle fibers. Thus, they grow slower, produce less muscle and deposit fat faster or sooner and ultimately less feed:gain ratios


Postnatal

Postnatal

  • Increased metabolic activity at the time of birth for maintaining body temp

  • Glycogen and white adipose fat tissues are called upon for energy

  • Colostrum is essential for energy and for immune response

  • Milk production plays an integral role in plane of nutrition versus growth


Postnatal1

Postnatal

  • Weaning- ultimate stress and nutrient change

  • Creep feeding

  • Ad libitum versus limited feed

    • Limited provides less fat intake and deposition

    • Yet, has little effect on muscle accretion

    • Table 11.5


Compensatory growth

Compensatory Growth

  • Compensatory growth after a period of nutrient restriction

  • If fed a high level of nutrition late in production after being deprived of nutrients will deposit more fat

  • If fed a low level of nutrition late in production, then they will produce leaner carcasses

  • Figure 11.9 and table 11.6 & 7


Dietary protein

Dietary Protein

  • Biological value

    • Reference to protein quality

  • Even though energy is sufficient, protein is essential for proper growth

  • Tables 11.8,11.9, 11.10

  • Yet, excess protein is metabolized for energy and/or excreted


Dietary protein1

Dietary Protein

  • Ruminants utilize microbial protein to satisfy part of protein requirements

  • Amino acids synthesized to ammonia, CO2, and VFA’s (these are required for microbial protein growth)- degradation

  • Nitrogen is the key for microbial protein satisfaction (NPN can be a source)


Dietary protein2

Dietary Protein

  • Bypass protein – protein that escapes the rumen

  • Degradable versus non-degradable prot.

  • Increased muscle accretion requires more protein


Dietary protein3

Dietary Protein

  • Non-ruminants

    • Essential versus non-essential amino acids

    • Limiting amino acids in basal diets

    • Amino acid balance/supplementation

    • Feed intake decreases with amino acid deficiencies

    • Catabolism of unused a.a.’s require energy which reduces efficiency

    • Table 11.11


Dietary energy

Dietary Energy

  • Requirements increase along with body size

  • Composition of wt. gain dictates total dietary energy requirements and f:g ratios

  • Supplemental fats are added to give more nutrient density

  • Non ruminants will assimilate fats to be similar type as to the type in the diet

    • Soft and oily fat due to melting point and type of fats in the feed


Feed additives

Feed Additives

  • Ionophores- carboxylic polyether ionophores to increase growth efficiency in cattle

  • Coccidiostats

  • Antibiotics

    • Subtherapeutic levels- changes microbes to improve efficiency


Regulation of protein accretion

Regulation of Protein Accretion

  • Alters rates of protein synthesis and degradation

  • Dependent upon nutritional regime versus plane of nutrition required

  • Synthesis and degradation occurs at varying rates

  • Synthesis is more sensitive than degradation

  • Amino acid and insulin supplies are important in mediating muscle protein metabolism


Regulation of protein accretion1

Regulation of Protein Accretion

  • Protein accretion rates in liver appear to be regulated by nutritional status through changes in protein degradation rates rather than through changes in synthesis rates


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