Chapter 37. The Circulatory and the Respiratory Systems. 37-1 The Circulatory System. Vocabulary: Artery Erythrocyte Arteriole Anemia Capillary Leukocyte Venule Leukemia Vein platelet Lymphatic system fibrin Lymph A-B-O system Plasma Rh factor. objectives.
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The Circulatory and the Respiratory Systems
B. Pathway of circulation : Arteries -> Arterioles-> Capillaries-> venules -> veins->Heart
1. Arteries – tubes that carry blood away from the heart. Arterial walls are tough, thick and expandable to accommodate for pressure of the blood forced out of the heart. It has 3 layers of tissue:
i. Lymphocytes – produce antibodies
ii. Macrophages – Wonder out of cells to fight infections.
d. Cancer of the White Blood Cells is called leukemia
d. Hemostasis is the stoppage of blood flow leading to coagulation. Hemostasis has 3 stages.
C. Antibodies in our blood plasma act against foreign antigens and may cause clumping (agglutinate) of the blood which could be fatal.
2. Systemic Circulation – delivers blood to the body tissues and returns it to the heart.
4. The actual contraction of the ventricles is stimulated by the Purkinje’s fibers that emerge from the bundle branches and pass into the myocardium of the ventricles.
On the average heart contractions are initiated at a rate of about 72 beats per minute. During sleep this rate decreases. During exercise this rate increases.
B. Heart attack – lack of blood or oxygen to an area of the heart muscle leading to the death of the cardiac muscle cells. It is the leading cause of death in the United States.
1. Can be cause by blocked coronary artery due to deposits of fatty material on the walls of the artery called atherosclerosis.
2. Atherosclerosis can lead to arteriosclerosis which is hardening of the arteries. Calcium deposits in the fatty buildup harden the artery itself where it is no longer able to stretch causing a build up of pressure and the heart to work harder.
2. EKG or ECG (electrocardiogram) – used to measure the electrical impulses produced by the heart as it contracts. Electrical current passes through the body and can be detected by sensors placed on the skin. This currents are recorded in an electrocardiogram.
2. The Pharynx – muscular passageway called the throat. Is part of the respiratory system and digestive system.
4. Trachea – or windpipe is made of c –shaped rings of hyaline cartilage which allow the esophagus to expand while swallowing and also are rigid enough to hold the passage ways open during pressure changes of breathing.
5. Bronchi – or Primary Bronchi are found at the end of the trachea and split into a right and left bronchi entering into the right and left lungs.
6. Lungs – Right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung has 2 lobes. They surround the heart.
7. Alveoli – Microscopic sacs on the end of the bronchioles.