What is critical thinking
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What is Critical thinking?. Thinking actively and not passively Being an independent thinker Refusing to be blinded by prejudice Only accepting something as true when we have good evidence for it Withholding judgment if we can't be sure what the evidence leads do (reasonable doubt).

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What is Critical thinking?

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What is critical thinking

What is Critical thinking?

  • Thinking actively and not passively

  • Being an independent thinker

  • Refusing to be blinded by prejudice

  • Only accepting something as true when we have good evidence for it

  • Withholding judgment if we can't be sure what the evidence leads do (reasonable doubt)


12 angry men

12 angry men

  • Two themes:

    1) Telling good from bad arguments

    2) avoiding prejudice


Key terms

Key Terms

  • Argument – a set of statements one of which is a conclusion, the rest of which are premises which support that conclusion

  • Bias/Prejudice – An irrational belief that is clung to by the believer without good evidence, and often believed even when there is good evidence against it!


What an argument is not

What an Argument is not

Not simply a disagreement

Not a shouting match

Not a quarrel


Arguments

Arguments?

Monty Python: Argument Clinic

Monty Python: She's a witch


Arguments in 12 angry men

P1:

P2:

P3:

P4:

P5:

P6:

P7:

P8:

----------------------------------------

C: There is reasonable doubt

Arguments in 12 angry men

P1: The Knife

P2: The Old Man

P3: The weak alibi

P4: Criminal record

P5: Conflict with Father

P6: Woman across the street

P7: He's one of “them”

P8: Nobody proved he did'nt do it

--------------------------------------

C: He is guilty


Problems with eyewitness testimony

Problems with eyewitness testimony

The Case of Ronald Cotton Part 1


Bias in 12 angry men

Bias in 12 angry men


Socrates

Socrates

Founder of Philosophy

Taught that the “unexamined life is not worth living.”

Thought we should stop thinking the way society tells us to and start thinking for ourselves.


What is critical thinking

Socrates and Socratic Method


The socratic method

The Socratic Method

Step 1: Ask a question regarding some “common sense belief”

Step 2: Find an exception to this belief

Step 3: Realize that the exception proves that the belief is false or at least incomplete

Step 4: Try to nuance the initial belief to take the exception into account

Step 5: Do this for as long as possible


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