Critical Thinking. Socrates 469-399 B.C. What is Critical Thinking?. Critical thinking =df. The careful , deliberate determination of whether we should accept , reject , or suspend judgment about a claim – and of the degree of confidence with which we should accept or reject it.
Critical thinking =df. The careful, deliberate determination of whether we should accept, reject, or suspend judgment about a claim – and of the degree of confidence with which we should accept or reject it.
A second advantage of the sponge approach is that it is relatively passive. The primary mental effort involves concentration and memory.
The sponge approach provides no method for deciding which information to believe and which to reject.
The sponge approach emphasizes knowledge acquisition.
Critical thinking stresses active interaction with knowledge as it is being acquired.
An individual that takes the sponge approach to learning may underline or highlight key words and sentences. Her mission is to find and understand what the author has to say. She memorizes the reasoning, but does not evaluate it.
A critical thinking approach requires that the reader ask herself a number of questions to clarify logical steps in the material and to help identify important omissions.
Critical Readers Are:
Critical Readers Are:
When you first encounter a conclusion, you do so with a history. You have learned to care about certain things, to support particular interests, and to disregard some particular claims. You will be thinking critically in the midst of existing opinions. You have emotional commitments to these opinions. Sometimes it is good to put your feelings aside for a while. This will enable you to listen to other’s arguments openly. The danger of being emotionally involved in an issue is that you may fail to consider potential good reasons for other positions.
M.Neil Browne and Stuart Keeley:
“As part of the human tendency to dichotomize or think in extremes, those who emphasize critical thinking as an educational necessity sometimes express contempt for emotions. All off us know that unrestrained feelings can get us into trouble. They seem to encourage us to act first and think later. But any tool can be misused. Emotions are an invaluable aspect of each of us. Many of the feelings that we have are the result of deep thought. We get angry at certain behavior for very good reasons. We may admire specific people for some powerful reasons. So how should you feel about your feelings as you try to think critically? Our advice is to recognize your feelings to the extent possible, respect those that are the result of careful reflection and try, as best you can, to prevent others from cluttering your reasoning.”