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Objectives. By the end of this module, participants will be able to:Describe trends in the education of second language learnersIdentify second language education program models.. To Think About. With a partner, brainstorm a list of what you know about educational programs for second language learners.Share one item with the group..
The Education of Second Language Learners

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1. The Education of Second Language Learners Developed by: Laurie R. Weaver Judith A. Marquez University of Houston-Clear Lake

2. Objectives By the end of this module, participants will be able to: Describe trends in the education of second language learners Identify second language education program models.

3. To Think About With a partner, brainstorm a list of what you know about educational programs for second language learners. Share one item with the group.

4. To Think About When was the first bilingual program offered in the United States? Go to the following link and print out the article on the History of Bilingual Education: http://brj.asu.edu/content/vol27_no1/abstracts.html (click on Bilingual Education in the United States by Carlos Ovando, full text in PDF)

5. Bilingual Education Many people believe that education using the students? first language (L1) is a recent movement However, in the US there have been bilingual education programs as well as education offered in a language other than English since colonial times

6. To Think About Why would there have been education in a language other than English in the colonial period?

7. Permissive Period 1700s-1880s Immigrants established communities and schools in their first language (L1) Some bilingual schools existed

8. Permissive Period American Indians spoke many different languages Culture of the American Indians differed from group to group American Indians did not have a formal institution of education

9. To Think About Why do you think some bilingual schools were established during this time period?

10. Permissive Period 1700s-1880s Bilingual schools set up by missionaries for American Indians Also instruction in Spanish was common in Southwest (settled by Spain)

11. Permissive Period 1700s-1880s Some attempts at linguistic assimilation Linguistic assimilation means to eradicate the use of the L1 while promoting the use of the L2 Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge Supposedly designed for religious instruction but its real purpose was to teach English to German-speaking children

12. Permissive Period 1700s-1880s Use of colonial languages (i.e., French, Dutch, Portuguese) decreased Journey to New World was dangerous Conditions in Europe had improved Thus, there were fewer immigrants This meant that there were fewer speakers of colonial languages other than English This led to English being a common language among early settlers

13. Restrictive Period 1880s-1960s During this time period, there was a rise in English-only schools 1882 Act to Regulate Immigration Prohibited entry to "any person unable to take care of himself or herself without becoming a public charge". Rise in Nativism Political and social movement that concentrated on restricting immigration and promoting the idea that the US was a country for white, native-born Protestants Naturalization Act of 1906 Made knowledge of English a requirement for naturalization

14. Restrictive Period 1880s-1960s Boarding schools for American Indians American Indians were forbidden to speak their L1

15. Restrictive Period 1880s-1960s WWI Anti-German feelings Led to the restriction on using and teaching German By 1923, 34 states had English-only instruction rules

16. Restrictive Period 1880s-1960s Cultural deficiency theory (disadvantaged, damaged) Promoted in the 1960s Some people today still believe in this theory The theory states that children from minority backgrounds don?t do well in school because of deficits in their culture

17. Restrictive Period 1880s-1960s According to this theory, for example, the underachievement of Latino students is explained by the culture?s supposed lack of valuing of education The fact that some Latino students might not be doing well because they do not understand the language of instruction is not taken into account by this theory

18. Opportunist Period 1960s-1980s Launching of Sputnik Russian rocket Caused fears in US that the US educational system was inferior to that of the Russians National Defense Education Act (1958) Provided funding for math, science and foreign language education Coral Way Elementary School (1963) Established in Miami for the children of Cuban refugees Successful bilingual school

19. Opportunist Period 1960s-1980s Other acts that led to bilingual education Civil Rights Act (1964) Immigration Act (1965) Bilingual Education Act-Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1968) Provided funding for materials and for training of bilingual teachers

20. Opportunist Period 1960s-1980s Supreme Court Case Lau v. Nichols (1974) Found that there is no equality of opportunity provided when instruction is provided in a language which the students do not understand Castaneda v. Pickard (1981) Castaneda test A bilingual education program must have: Sound educational theory Adequate resources and personnel Sound practices and results

21. Dismissive Period 1980s to Present Shift in Title VII funds to English-only programs Proposition 187 (Save our State) (1994) Proposition in California that denied social services, including education, to children of undocumented families (illegal aliens) This has since been found to be unconstitutional

22. Dismissive Period 1980s to Present Proposition 227 (1998) Restricted bilingual education in California Unz Initiative in Arizona (2000) Restricted bilingual education Unz Initiative in Massachusetts (2002) Restricted bilingual education

23. Dismissive Period 19802 to Present Unz Initiative in Colorado/Amendment 31 (2002) Restricted bilingual education Was not passed No Child Left Behind Act (2002) Established English language development assessment criteria for English language learners

24. Program Models To think about: If you and your family were to move to a non-English-speaking country, what type of educational experience would you look for for your child? Why? Discuss this with a partner.

25. Program Models Transitional bilingual education (early exit) Maintenance bilingual education (late exit, developmental) Two way immersion (dual language) Pull out ESL Push in (inclusion) ESL ESL as a subject

26. Program Models Sheltered ESL Resource ESL ESL self contained ESL certified general education teacher Newcomer/immigrant program Heritage language (Spanish for Spanish speakers)

27. Program Models: Bilingual Education Transitional bilingual education (early exit) Goal is to move students into all English classrooms as quickly as possible Students? L1 only used as a means of moving students to English Most common bilingual program in US

28. Program Models: Bilingual Education Maintenance bilingual education (late exit, developmental) Goal is to develop both L1 and L2 to grade level There is no hurry to move students to all English classroom Not a common program in the US

29. Program Models: Bilingual Education Two way immersion (dual language) Goal is for speakers from at least two different language backgrounds to develop bilingualism and biliteracy to grade level Example: English and Spanish speakers in the same class, taught in two languages through 5th grade Currently, a rapidly growing program

30. Program Models: ESL Pull out ESL ESL teacher pulls student out of the classroom and focuses on teaching student English Push in (inclusion) ESL ESL teacher provides support to the English language learner in the general education classroom

31. Program Models: ESL ESL as a subject Common in junior and senior high schools English language learners take an ESL class instead of a reading/language arts class The teacher focuses on language development

32. Program Models: ESL Sheltered ESL A math, science or social studies class taught by a content specialist who is also ESL certified. The teacher uses ESL strategies to teach content to the English language learners (ELL). Resource ESL ELL leaves classroom to seek help from ESL teacher.

33. Program Models: ESL ESL self contained Generally an elementary program All students in the class are ELLs Teacher uses ESL strategies to teach all subjects ESL certified general education teacher General education teacher is ESL certified and has ELLs placed in his/her class Currently this is a rapidly growing approach in US public schools

34. Program Models: ESL Newcomer/immigrant program Generally for junior and senior high students A semester to one year of intensive English instruction is provided so that ELLs can enter the all English classroom with some knowledge of English

35. Program Models: L1 Instruction Heritage language (Spanish for Spanish speakers) Class designed for students who speak Spanish as their L1 but have not been schooled in Spanish Class focuses on building academic vocabulary, reading and writing skills

36. To Think About Think about the type of program you would like your own child to be in if you moved to another country. Can you identify what type of program it is? Why would you select that type of program?


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