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MIS 161 Systems Development Life Cycle II Lecture 3: Remember Prototyping? Data Storage Interface Design. Prototyping. Definition. A PROTOTYPE is a model of the system It can be as simple as mock-ups of reports or screens, or as complete as software that actually does some processing.

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MIS 161Systems Development Life Cycle IILecture 3:Remember Prototyping?Data Storage Interface Design

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Prototyping

Prototyping

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Definition
Definition

  • A PROTOTYPE is a model of the system

    • It can be as simple as mock-ups of reports or screens, or as complete as software that actually does some processing.

    • Can be used as a communication tool between analyst and user.

  • Prototyping is the process of developing prototypes.

  • Prototyping strategy indicates the type of prototype used.

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


How is it used
How is it Used?

  • As a methodology

  • As a technique/tool within the SDLC.

    • Some phases supported/replaced

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Approaches
Approaches

  • Type I - Iterative

    • becomes final system

  • Type II - Throwaway

    • used as model for final system

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Type i iterative life cycle
Type I (Iterative) Life Cycle

Requirements

Definition

Prototype

Training

Project

Planning

Rapid

Analysis

Database

Design

Design

Prototype

Generate

Prototype

Test

Prototype

No

Acceptable?

Yes

Implement

System

Maintain

System

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Type ii throwaway life cycle
Type II (Throwaway) Life Cycle

Requirements

Definition

Analysis

Design

Prototype

Code

Prototype

Test

Prototype

No

Acceptable?

Yes

Code Final

System

No

Test Final

System

Yes

Implement Final

System

Maintain Final

System

Acceptable?

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Types of prototypes
Types of Prototypes

  • Illustrative

    • Mock-ups

  • Simulated

    • Looks like they work, but are simulations

  • Functional

    • Does some processing, but doesn’t store data

  • Evolutionary

    • Used to produce an operational systems

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Evolutionary prototype levels
Evolutionary Prototype Levels

  • Level 1 (Input-Output)

    • printed reports and on-line screens

    • screen flow sequence

    • screen options

  • Level 2 (Heuristic-Learning)

    • updating database

    • basic transactions

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Levels continued
Levels (Continued)

  • Level 3 (Adaptive)

    • working model of system

    • system with training wheels

    • no bells or whistles

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Advantages
Advantages

  • Speed

  • Easier for end-users to learn

  • System changes discovered earlier

  • End-user involvement (ownership)

    • increased user satisfaction

    • increased user acceptance

  • User-analyst communication

  • Early problem detection

    • reduced development time

    • reduced maintenance

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Disadvantages
Disadvantages

  • Poor documentation

  • Hard to control/manage

  • (Unrealistic) User expectations

    • time for final system

    • final system differences

    • reduced analysis

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Data storage

Data Storage

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Data storage design objectives
Data Storage Design Objectives

  • The objectives in the design of data storage organization are

    • The data must be available when the user wants to use it

    • The data must have integrity

      • It must be accurate and consistent

    • Efficient storage of data as well as efficient updating and retrieval

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Data storage design objectives1
Data Storage Design Objectives

  • Further design objectives

    • The information retrieval be purposeful

    • The information obtained from the stored data must be in an integrated form to be useful for

      • Managing

      • Planning

      • Controlling

      • Decision making

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Dimensions of data storage optimization
Dimensions of Data Storage Optimization

  • Storage efficiency (minimizing storage space)

  • Speed of access (minimizing time to retrieve desired information)

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Approaches to data storage
Approaches to Data Storage

  • There are two approaches to the storage of data in a computer system

    • Store the data in individual files each unique to a particular application

    • Storage of data in a computer-based system involves building a database

      • A formally defined and centrally controlled store of data intended for use in many different applications

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Files
Files

  • A file contains groups of records used to provide information for operations, planning, management, and decision making

  • Files can be used for storing data for an indefinite period of time, or they can be used to store data temporarily for a specific purpose

  • A file can be designed and built quite rapidly, and the concerns for data availability and security are minimized

  • Analysts can choose an appropriate file structure according to the required processing speed of the particular application system

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Types of databases

Relational

Object-relational

Object-oriented

Types of Databases

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Objectives of effective databases
Objectives of Effective Databases

  • The effectiveness objectives of the database include

    • Ensuring that data can be shared among users for a variety of applications

    • Maintaining data that are both accurate and consistent

    • Ensuring all data required for current and future applications will be readily available

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Objectives of effective databases1
Objectives of Effective Databases

  • Further effectiveness objectives of the database include

    • Allowing the database to evolve and the needs of the users to grow

    • Allowing users to construct their personal view of the data without concern for the way the data are physically stored

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Interface design specifications

Interface Design Specifications

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Interface structure design
Interface Structure Design

  • Basic components of the interface

  • How these components work together

  • Windows Navigation Diagram (WND)

    • Depicts how the users of an application may go from window to window through menus/command buttons.

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Window navigation diagram wnd
Window Navigation Diagram (WND)

  • Models changes of the state interface

    • Each state represented as a box

    • Transitions

Return required

Return not required

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Designing the user interface

Designing the User Interface MIS 161 Spring 2005

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


The user interface
The User Interface MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • The user interface is the system which helps users' communication with the computer system and/or the application system

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


User interface design objectives
User Interface Design Objectives MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • To design a better user interface, use the following objectives:

    • Effectiveness as achieved through design of interfaces that allow the user to access the system in a way that is congruent with their individual needs

    • Efficiency as demonstrated through interfaces that increase speed of data entry, and reduce errors

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


User interface design objectives1
User Interface Design Objectives MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Further interface design objectives

    • User consideration as demonstrated in designing suitable interfaces, and providing appropriate feedback to users from the system

    • Generating usable queries

    • Productivity as shown through following sound principles of design for user interfaces and work spaces

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Online screen design
Online Screen Design MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Guidelines for screen design are

    • Keep the screen simple

    • Keep the screen presentation consistent

    • Facilitate user movement among screens

    • Create an attractive screen

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Input design objectives
Input Design Objectives MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • The quality of system input determines the quality of system output

  • Well-designed input objectives

    • Effectiveness

    • Accuracy

    • Ease of use

    • Consistency

    • Simplicity

    • Attractiveness

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Form design
Form Design MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Guidelines for good form design

    • Make forms easy to fill out

    • Ensure that forms meet the purpose for which they are designed

    • Design forms to assure accurate completion

    • Keep forms attractive

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Dialog
Dialog MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Dialog is the communication between a person and the computer

  • Three key points to be considered

    • Meaningful communication

    • Minimal user action

    • Standard operation and consistency

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Communication
Communication MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Communication means that the user understands the information that is being presented

  • Users with less skill require a greater amount of communication

  • Provide easy to use help screens

  • Often these contain hyperlinks to other related help topics

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Minimal user action
Minimal User Action MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Minimal user action is achieved by

    • Entering codes instead of code meanings

    • Enter only data that are not stored on files

    • Not requiring users to enter editing characters

    • Supplying default values on entry screens

    • Providing inquiry programs with short entry fields

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Minimal user action1
Minimal User Action MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Further key points

    • Providing keystrokes for selecting menu options that are normally selected using a mouse

    • Selecting codes from a pull-down menu on a GUI screen

    • Provide context-sensitive menus, displayed when the right mouse button is clicked on an object

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Standard operation
Standard Operation MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Standard operation is achieved by

    • Keeping header and footer information in the same locations for all screens

    • Using the same keystrokes to exit a program

    • Using the same keystrokes to cancel a transaction

    • Using a standard key for obtaining help

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Standard operation1
Standard Operation MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Further key points

    • Standardized use of icons when using graphical user interface screens

    • Consistent use of terminology within a screen or Web site

    • Providing a consistent way to navigate through the dialog

    • Consistent font alignment, size, and color on a Web page

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Tab control dialogue boxes
Tab Control Dialogue Boxes MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Tab control dialog boxes are a feature of GUI design

  • They should have logically grouped functions on each tab

  • Each tab dialog box should have OK, Cancel or Apply, and perhaps Help buttons

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Evaluating user interfaces
Evaluating User Interfaces MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • The five useful standards in evaluating the interfaces are

    • The training period for users should be acceptably short

    • Users early in their training should be able to enter commands without thinking about them, or referring to a help menu or manual

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Evaluating user interfaces1
Evaluating User Interfaces MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Continued evaluation guidelines

    • The interface should be "seamless" so that errors are few, and those that do occur are not occurring because of poor design

    • Time necessary for users and the system to bounce back from errors should be short

    • Infrequent users should be able to relearn the system quickly

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Types of feedback
Types of Feedback MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Feedback to the user is necessary in seven distinct situations:

    • The computer has accepted the input

    • The input is in the correct form

    • The input is not in the correct form

    • There will be a delay in processing

    • The request has been completed

    • The computer cannot complete the request

    • More detailed feedback is available

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


Program help
Program Help MIS 161 Spring 2005

  • Program help comes in a variety of ways:

    • Pressing a function key, such as F1

    • A GUI pull-down menu

    • Context-sensitive help, specific for the operation being performed

    • Iconic help, obtained when a cursor is left over an icon for a few seconds

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D. MIS 161 Spring 2005


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