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Adlerian Theory. Alfred Adler. Theory of personality. Consciousness more important than unconsciousness Ego more important than id. The person is viewed holistically— we are creative, responsible, becoming

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adlerian theory

Adlerian Theory

Alfred Adler

theory of personality
Theory of personality
  • Consciousness more important than unconsciousness
    • Ego more important than id.
  • The person is viewed holistically— we are creative, responsible, becoming
    • Contrasts with Freud’s more pessimistic view of human nature and portrayal of personality as comprised of parts
  • Social being is emphasized
    • Interpersonal psychology rather than intrapersonal psychology
  • People are not “pushed” by heredity and environment as much as “pulled” by the future…
    • The person’s past and circumstances “frame” and “influence” the individual’s goals
  • Life is a dynamic striving for:
    • Security
    • Self-esteem
    • A place of Significance in the world
theory of personality3
Theory of personality
  • Striving for superiority (Feelings of inferiority)
    • Born helpless and dependent
      • Impetus of personality development – The Style of Life
  • Social Interest
    • Individual’s attitude toward and awareness of

being a part of the human community

    • Healthy personality related to the degree to which we

successfully share with others and are concerned with their

welfare

      • Happiness and success are largely related to social

connectedness

    • Three universal life tasks
      • Building friendships
      • Establishing intimacy
      • Contributing to society
    • Birth Order
      • Ordinal position predicts some degree of style of life
the creative self
The creative self
  • The concepts involved in the development of the style of life manifest through the CREATIVE SELF
    • Objective facts translated into personally meaningful events
  • The creative self drives the individual to negotiate the BASIC LIFE TASKS
    • Work
    • Opposite sex relationships
    • Being a constructive part of society
inferiority and compensation
Inferiority and compensation
  • As children search for significance, they draw conclusions about the self>
  • 4 goals of the “discouraged child”
    • ATTENTION GETTING
    • POWER SEEKING
    • REVENGE TAKING
    • DECLARING DEFICIENCY OR DEFEAT
the discouraged child
The discouraged child
  • All of the 4 goals identified by Dreikurs can be portrayed by any child, discouraged or otherwise. It is a matter of degree, frequency, and whether or not the child has an underlying sense of hopefulness, acceptance and significance that determines the health of the child.
psychopathology
Psychopathology
  • Two problems drive psychopathology
    • Exaggerated inferiority feeling
    • Insufficiently developed feeling of

community

  • Manifest through pathological lifestyles
  • Pampered lifestyle
    • Parental overindulgence
  • Compulsive lifestyle
    • Parental domination
  • Other manifestations
    • Abuse
    • Neglect
psychopathology basic mistakes
Psychopathology - Basic mistakes
  • OVERGENERALIZATIONS
  • FALSE OR IMPOSSIBLE GOALS OF SECURITY
  • MISPERCEPTIONS OF LIFE AND LIFE’S DEMANDS
  • MIMIMIZATION OF ONE’S WORTH
  • FAULTY VALUES

Thought: This is a short list but a valuable one; many psychological problems that people have can be explained by these 5 “basic mistakes”.

goals of therapy
Goals of Therapy
  • Educate clients about psychological processes
  • Educate clients about “basic mistakes”
  • Release or encourage clients’ social interest
  • Encourage clients to recognize their equality
therapeutic relationship
Therapeutic Relationship
  • Prototype of social interest
    • Love, faith and hope for the human condition
  • Therapist’s Role
    • Psychoeducator/role-model
    • Cooperative
    • Egalitarian
    • Authentic, caring, and genuine
  • Client
    • Active learner taking social interest within the session
adlerian therapeutic techniques
Adlerian Therapeutic Techniques
  • Analysis
    • Interpretation geared toward increasing the perception of purposive nature of life
  • The Life Style Investigation/Feedback
    • Family constellation
    • Earliest Recollections
  • Catching oneself – Contingency control
  • Acting “As If” – Choosing/reevaluation
  • Push button technique – Precursor to cognitive interventions. Change through choosing
content
Content
  • Intrapersonal conflict important, but marked a distinct move toward dealing with interpersonal conflict
  • Moved beyond conflict and into meaning and fulfillment
strengths of adlerian therapy
Strengths of Adlerian Therapy
  • Brief or time-limited
  • Applicable to community mental health
  • Addresses social equality issues
  • Useful for counseling culturally diverse populations
  • Focus on social context
limitations
Limitations
  • Not very systemized
    • Which interventions with which patients with which disorders
  • Is inferiority that important
  • Difficult to test the idea of creative self or the primacy of social interest
    • Behavioral explanation is simpler
other ego psychotherapies
Other Ego Psychotherapies
  • More than Adler broke from Freud and focused on the ego as opposed to the Id
    • Object relations
      • Interpersonal focus based on mental representations of self and people (objects).
      • The concept of attachment came for OR theory
      • TR is more open and warm than traditional psychoanalysis
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