The restoration of coral reefs
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The Restoration Of Coral Reefs. Brett Crawford. What are Coral Reefs?. Represent one of the most diverse ecosystems on planet; “Rainforest of the ocean”. Tropical and Semi-tropical waters. Temps range from 61-86 degrees Fahrenheit. Three types of Coral Reefs. . What are Coral Reefs?.

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The Restoration Of Coral Reefs

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The restoration of coral reefs

The Restoration Of Coral Reefs

Brett Crawford


What are coral reefs

What are Coral Reefs?

  • Represent one of the most diverse ecosystems on planet; “Rainforest of the ocean”.

  • Tropical and Semi-tropical waters. Temps range from 61-86 degrees Fahrenheit.

  • Three types of Coral Reefs.


What are coral reefs1

What are Coral Reefs?

  • Barrier Reef

  • Occur offshore, separated from mainland by water.

  • Great Barrier Reef

  • Largest reef system, 2,900 individual reefs, 900 islands, stretches 1,600 miles.

  • Can be seen from space.


What are coral reefs2

What are Coral Reefs?

  • Fringing Reef

  • Has shallow back reef zone, reef grows directly from shoreline.

  • Most common reef type in Caribbean and Red Sea.


What are coral reefs3

What are Coral Reefs?

  • Atolls

  • An island of coral that encircles a lagoon partially or entirely.

  • Most are in Pacific Ocean.


What are coral reefs4

What are Coral Reefs?

  • Corals are very small animals.

  • Sessile

  • Eat small fish and plank-tonic animals using tentacles.

  • Corals grouped into colonies, individual parts are “Polyps”.

  • Polyps secrete Calcium Carbonate skeleton from base.

  • Substrate for Corals.

  • Coral grows as more Calcium Carbonate skeleton deposited.

  • Living Coral on surface.

  • Average growth 0.3-10 cm/per year.


What are coral reefs5

What are Coral Reefs?

Coral Polyp


What are coral reefs6

What are Coral Reefs?

  • Zooxanthellae Algae

  • Live in Polyps.

  • Symbiotic

  • Algae-photosynthesizes and creates food for coral.

  • Coral-provides protection and gives access to light.


What are coral reefs7

What are Coral Reefs?

  • Provide food and habitat for Sponges, Crabs, Shrimp, Sea Slugs, Sea Stars, Oysters, Sea Turtles and Fish.

  • Good indicators for water quality in ocean.

  • Protect coastlines from erosion.


Coral reef values

Coral Reef Values

  • Natural goods for fisheries industry.

  • High value as fish sanctuary and nurseries.

  • Tourism

  • $483 million in annual net benefits to U.S. economy from tourism and recreational activities related to U.S. coral reefs.

  • $1.1 billion in annual net benefits to U.S. economy from overall goods and services related to U.S. coral reefs.


Threats to coral reefs

Threats to Coral Reefs

  • Pollution

  • Agricultural and Industrial runoff.

  • Sewage and toxic waste discharge.

  • Erosion and sedimentation.


Threats to coral reefs1

Threats to Coral Reefs

  • Fishing

  • Over-fishing can drastically decrease certain fish species, disrupt multiple Trophic levels.

  • Fishing techniques

  • Fishing gear

  • Anchoring of fishing vessels


Threats to coral reefs2

Threats to Coral Reefs

  • Global Climate Change

  • Biggest threat to coral reefs.

  • Bleaching and spread of infectious diseases.

  • CO2 in atmosphere causing “ocean acidification”.

  • Rising water level, harder for light to get to corals.


Solutions to coral reef threats

Solutions to Coral Reef Threats

  • NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program and other agencies.

  • Fishing

  • “No Take” Zones-Florida Keys

  • Fish Replenishment Areas-West Hawaii


Solutions to coral reef threats1

Solutions to Coral Reef Threats

  • Pollution

  • Control land based pollution sources.

  • Focus on protection of watershed quality

  • Easements, Trusts or Reserves from stakeholders party (local, state, federal, etc.)


Global climate change

Global Climate Change

  • Too big for NOAA

  • Reduce the emissions of Green House Gases.

  • Too much excess CO2 already in atmosphere, coral reefs will be affected throughout this century.

  • Ocean absorbs 1/3 of additional CO2 from humans, causes further “ocean acidification”.


Restoration ecology coral reefs

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs

  • Many coral reefs have passed their Abiotic threshold.

  • Assisting recovery of “freak landscapes”.

  • Increase ecological integrity and historical fidelity.

  • Goals must be dynamic, b/c ecosystems are dynamic.


Restoration ecology coral reefs1

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs

  • Coral Farming or Gardening

  • Fragment poorly spaced Corals.

  • Attach to grate in nursery area.

  • Transplant when mature.


Restoration ecology coral reefs2

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs

  • Collection of gametes during coral spawning.

  • Rear juvenile coral communities in lab from fertilized eggs.

  • Once mature, transplanted back into reef.


Restoration ecology coral reefs3

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs

  • Education

  • “Adopt-A-Coral” program.

  • Increase public awareness

  • No social constraint


Restoration ecology coral reefs4

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs

  • Coral Farming

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=I69isSS1TvI


References

References

  • Coral Reef-http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://images.sciencedaily.com/2008/04/080401200446-large.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080401200446.htm&usg=__OfeYb3DVdB119mxWw3u7GKcCq0c=&h=398&w=600&sz=64&hl=en&start=93&sig2=C48b32QlA1EtXazfawCRqw&zoom=1&tbnid=ls3a2X-frUifwM:&tbnh=175&tbnw=233&ei=iGKsTc_bB8rkiAKw7a3vDA&prev=/search%3Fq%3DCoral%2Breef%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D680%26tbm%3Disch0%2C3453&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=760&vpy=158&dur=2158&hovh=183&hovw=276&tx=154&ty=80&oei=cWKsTfb0H-Tm0QGqyb3-BQ&page=7&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:93&biw=1280&bih=680

  • Barrier Reef-http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.treehugger.com/great-barrier-reef.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/06/oceans-of-change-protecting-the-planets-life-support-system.php&usg=__dJhOHd-VKHyMQonREyaG5skqXu4=&h=351&w=468&sz=36&hl=en&start=57&sig2=jTGYuRZOicd7vPjOcHHGSg&zoom=1&tbnid=rv_vPRGrszDiWM:&tbnh=152&tbnw=205&ei=BmOsTcjGA-HiiAKWucnvDA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dbarrier%2Breef%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Den%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D680%26tbm%3Disch0%2C1711&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=792&vpy=282&dur=295&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=168&ty=136&oei=_mKsTfveL9KP0QHJtsT5CA&page=4&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:57&biw=1280&bih=680

  • Fringing Reef-http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://coralreef.capiz.biz/images/fringing.jpg&imgrefurl=http://coralreef.capiz.biz/fringing.html&usg=__yxNGO3mcOQA-mrDfxNQq9_w5vaU=&h=285&w=380&sz=39&hl=en&start=0&sig2=L8eDdYLIJC73J6alqhafkg&zoom=1&tbnid=97AoOHm_GQS-MM:&tbnh=156&tbnw=208&ei=d2OsTeLrI8OP0QH2pYX5CA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dfringing%2Breef%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D680%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=143&vpy=139&dur=777&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=219&ty=128&oei=d2OsTeLrI8OP0QH2pYX5CA&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0

  • Atolls- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Atafutrim.jpg


References1

References

  • Coral Polyp-http://gc.kuty.cz/redsea/coralpolyp.jpg

  • Zooxanthelae Algae-http://agsci.oregonstate.edu/aquatic-bt/sites/default/files/zooxanthellae_SANTOS.jpg

  • Sedimentation-http://coralreef.noaa.gov/aboutcrcp/strategy/reprioritization/wgroups/resources/lbsp/resources/kanakakai_%20wharf_kc.JPG

  • Blast Fishing-http://w3.shorecrest.org/~Lisa_Peck/MarineBio/syllabus/ch11_ecosystems/ecosystem_wp/coralreefs_johnathan_alexj/dynamite_reef_1.jpg

  • Bleaching-http://africanalchemy.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/coral-bleaching.jpg

  • Coral Farming-http://www.ramadianbachtiar.com/assets/20060512_Indonesia_VoicesFromTheSea_RB_010.jpg

  • Coral Spawning-http://img-ak.verticalresponse.com/media/d/5/1/d51c21facf/be324c6740/63b08ae701/library/CORAL%20NL%20Aug%202010/Coral-spawning.jpg

  • Adopt-A-Coral-http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_3Mp5QFpdLmE/Sq832mSGT2I/AAAAAAAAEd4/1vzCk8aA3q8/s400/sidebar.jpg

  • Adopt-A-Coral-http://www.floridakeysdivectr.com/images/adopt-a-coral-program-key-largo.jpg


References2

References

  • EPA, . "Coral Reef Protection: What Are Coral Reefs?." United States Environmental Protection Agency 04/06/2011: n. pag. Web. 18 Apr 2011. <http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/habitat/coral_index.cfm#problems>.

  • NOAA, . "NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program." U.S. Department of Commerce:National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration . NOAA, 02/02/2010. Web. 18 Apr 2011. <http://coralreef.noaa.gov/aboutcorals/>.

  • Linden, B., and B. Rinkevich. "Creating Stocks Of Young Colonies From Brooding Coral Larvae, Amenable To Active Reef Restoration." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 398.1-2 (2011): 40-46. Web. 18 Apr 2011. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8F-51Y4500-1&_user=10&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2011&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=975b5f37c85c2ce41be64b08e1b27d90&searchtype=a>.

  • Waddell, , and Clark. "The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems Of The United States And Pacific Freely Associated States." NOAA's State Of The Coast 2008: n. pag. Web. 18 Apr 2011. <http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/coral/welcome.html>.


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