Developmental psychology
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Developmental Psychology. Romantic Love & Attachment, Parenting Styles, Egocentrism, and Cultural Diversity and Development. By Nicole Banting , Samaia Paler, Simran Asere. ROMANTIC LOVE ♥. Romantic Love and attachment.

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Developmental Psychology

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Developmental Psychology

Romantic Love & Attachment, Parenting Styles, Egocentrism, and Cultural Diversity and Development

By Nicole Banting, Samaia Paler, SimranAsere


ROMANTIC LOVE ♥


Romantic Love and attachment

  • The attachment of infants towards their parents may have an effect on their adult romantic relationships

  • Remember that the correlation between infant attachment and romantic love style do NOT suggest causation


Avoidant Infants  adults

  • Have trouble trusting others

  • Avoid intimacy

  • Rarely report finding “true love”


Anxious/ambivalent infants  adults

  • Tend to be possessive

  • Emotionally demanding towards their partners

  • Fear their intense love will not be returned


Securely attached infants  adults

  • Closer to others

  • Find others more trustworthy

  • Most desired partner

  • Foster long-term relationships


PARENTING STYLES


4 Different Parenting Styles(Baumrind’s Research)

  • 1. Permissive-Neglectful (cw)

  • 2. Permissive- Indulgent (cW)

  • 3. Authoritarian (Cw)

  • 4. Authoritative (CW)


Permissive-Neglectful

  • “I don’t care about you—or what you do.”

  • Low control, low warmth

  • Parents are not demanding and show rejection

  • Results:

  • poor social skills

  • little self-control


Permissive-Indulgent

  • “I care about you—and you are free to do whatever you want.”

  • Low control, high warmth

  • Parents do not discipline enough, yet are caring and connected with their child

  • Results:

  • immature

  • disrespectful

  • out of control


Authoritarian

  • “I don’t care what you want. Just do it my way, or else!”

  • High control, low warmth

  • Parents are strict but don’t care about their child

  • Results:

  • easily upset

  • moody

  • aggressive

  • fails to learn communications skills


Authoritative

  • “I really care about you, but there are rules and you need to be responsible.”

  • High control, high warmth

  • Parents set firm limits on their child, and are emotionally supportive and caring at the same time

  • Results:

  • self-reliant

  • content

  • self-controlled

  • goal oriented

  • high achieving

  • friendly

  • emotionally well adjusted

  • socially competent


3 Major Aspects That Affect Baumrind’s Research


Child Temperament

  • Chosen styles depend on child’s temperament and reactions to parental efforts

    Example:

    The Authoritative style is chosen

    for a child that is already mature

    and competent


Child Expectations

  • Chosen styles depend on the child’s expectations of how their parent should behave

  • Example:

  • Korean parents show strong control but they are perceived as a sign of love

    VS

  • Strong control in America would be perceived as rejection


Parental Warmth

  • The degree of warmth parents feel VS the degree of rejection parents feel

    Example:

    Neglectful parents correlate

    with hostile, aggressive children


Father vs Mother Parenting

  • The father’s role in child care used to be largely ignored

  • Children do best with authoritative dads

  • Fathers are just as responsive, nurturing, and competent as mothers


Egocentric Thinking


What is egocentric thinking?

  • Thinking only of yourself without considering the rights, needs, or point of view of others

  • Ex. Childhood egocentrism – a little boy unwilling to share his toys

  • Adolescent egocentrism – a teenager refuses to go to school because of the zit on her face


Standards in egocentric thinking

  • Innate Egocentrism

  • Innate Sociocentrism

  • Innate Wish-fulfillment

  • Innate Self- Validation

  • Innate Selfishness


Innate egocentrism

“It’s true because I believe it!”

  • Assuming personal beliefs are true without questioning the basis of those beliefs


Innate Sociocentrism

“It’s true because we believe it!”

  • Assuming beliefs within groups are true without questioning it


Innate Wish-Fulfillment

“Its true because I want to believe it!”

  • Believing whatever supports your beliefs and puts you in a positive light without considering the evidence


Innate Self-Validation

“It’s true because I have always believed it!”

  • Desire to maintain long-held beliefs without examining if those beliefs are justified


Innate Selfishness

“It’s true because it’s in my selfish interest to believe it!”

  • Clinging to beliefs that give you personal advantages even if there is no evidence for those beliefs


Cultural Psychology’s Four Main Guidelines for Development


1. Culture may be the most important determinant of development

  • You can tell how most likely a child will develop by their culture

  • Children who grow up in a more individualistic culture like North America will be more rebellious and competitive

  • In a more collectivist culture like Africa they are more likely to be respectful and cooperative


2. Human development cannot be studied outside its sociocultural context

  • Different places have different views on authoritative figures

  • Researchers in child development believe that children should only be studied within their developmental niche

  • Developmental niche has three components:

  • The physical/social contexts in the child’s life

  • The culture and educational practices

  • The psychological characteristics of parents


3. Each culture’s ethnotheories are important determinants of behaviour

  • Each culture has a set of ideas and beliefs (ethnotheories)

  • Ex. Specific cultures have different beliefs on how a child should be trained


4. Culture is largely invisible to its participants

  • Culture consists of ideals, values, and assumptions that guide specific behaviours


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