Morphology
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Morphology. LI 2013 Nathalie F. Martin. Table of Content. At the end of this chapter you will know: Morphemes Affixation: prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix Compound Words Lexical Categories Derivation Inflection Morphological Typology of Languages Word Formation

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Morphology

Morphology

LI 2013 Nathalie F. Martin


Table of content

Table of Content

At the end of this chapter you will know:

  • Morphemes

  • Affixation: prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix

  • Compound Words

  • Lexical Categories

  • Derivation

  • Inflection

  • Morphological Typology of Languages

  • Word Formation

  • Other morphological phenomenon

Reference: O’Grady & al. (2009); Rowe & al. (2012)


I morphemes

I. Morphemes

Morphology

Simple vs. Complex words

Free vs. bound morphemes


Morphology1

Morphology

  • Morphology:

    • The analysis of word __________.

    • The system of categories and rules involved in _______________ and __________________.


Word and morpheme

Word and Morpheme

  • Word: the smallest _________

    (an element that doesn’t have to occur in a fixed position)

  • Word simplevs. complex

    • Ex.

  • Morpheme: the smallest _________

    _________

  • Morpheme  free vs. bound

    • Ex.

Ex: dinosaurs


Question 1 p 139 o grady 2009

Question #1, p.139 O’Grady,2009

Fly

Desks

Untie

Tree

Dislike

Reuse

Triumphed

Delight

Justly

O’Grady, 2009


Ii affixation

II. Affixation

Root, affix

Base

Affix:

prefix, suffix, infixes & circumfixes


Roots affixes

Roots & affixes

  • Root: Serves as a building block for other words (usually, but not always a free morpheme)

  • Affix: Bound morphemes added to the root.


Affixation

Affixation

  • Prefix: An affix that is attached to the _________of a base,

    • Ex. re-play.

  • Suffix: An affix that is attached to the _________of a base.

    • Ex. kind-ness.


Affixation1

Affixation

  • Infix: An affix that occur _________a base

    • Ex: Tagalog: write = sulat/ written = sinulat.

      • The infix -in- changes the verb from present to past tense.

  • Circumfixes: Where you _________ ___________(sometimes surrounding the root).

    • Ex: Arabic: Book = kitab / Wrote = kataba / has been written= kutib

    • Ex: Hebrew


Hebrew and affixes

Hebrew and Affixes

The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible  By Jeff A. Benner


Hebrew and affixes1

Hebrew and Affixes

הִמְטִיר (hee-teer)

  • This is the verb מטר (M.Th.R) meaning to "rain." The structure of the verb also identifies the verb tense as perfect – he rained. The prefix ה (hee) along with the י (ee) infix, identifies the verb as a hiphil (causative) verb – he made rain, or he caused to rain. But, the preceding word לא negates this verb – he did not cause it to rain.

www.ancient-hebrew.org/emagazine/046.doc


Examples of english affixes

Examples of English Affixes

  • -able

  • -ing

  • -ish

  • -ize

  • Anti-

  • Ex-

  • Re-

  • In-


Analyzing word structure

Analyzing Word Structure

Underline the root.

Circle the affix.

Draw a structure diagram.

Payment

Spiteful

Suite

Fastest

Deform

Disobey

Preplan

Optionality

Prettier

Mistreat

Premature


Iii compound words

III. Compound Words

Closed-form compound

Hyphenated compound

Open-form compound


Compound words

Compound Words

  • Closed-form compound:

  • Hyphenated compound:

  • Open-form compound:


What kind of compound word is this

What kind of Compound Word is this

  • Brain waves

  • Turnstile


What kind of compound word is this1

What kind of Compound Word is this?

  • Hair plugs

  • Fast food


Iv lexical categories

IV. Lexical Categories

A small overview


Syntactic categories 1

Noun (N)

Verb (V)

Adjective (A)

Preposition (P)

Adverb (Adv)

moisture, policy

melt, remain

good, intelligent

to, near

slowly, now

Syntactic Categories (1)


Syntactic categories 2

Determiner (Det)

Auxiliary (Aux)

Conjunction (Con)

Interjection

the, this, my

will, can

and, or

Oh, goodness sake, whatever

Syntactic Categories (2)


Exercise word class

Exercise: Word class

  • betterment

  • the

  • him

  • elegant

  • inconvenience

  • eloquently

  • comply

  • inasmuch as

  • over

Determine the word class of each of the following words.


V derivation

V. Derivation

English derivational affixes

Complex derivation

Constraints in derivation

Two classes of derivational affixes


Derivation

Derivation

  • An affixational process that forms a word with a _____________ and/or ___________ _________from that of it’s base.

  • Ex:


Examples of english derivational affixes

Examples of English Derivational Affixes

  • See pages 117 or O’Grady.

O’Grady, 2009


Derivation1

Derivation

  • Illustrated through trees:

    NV

    VAfAAf

    treatmentmodern ize


Let s practice

Let’s Practice

Underline the root.

Circle the base.

Draw a structure diagram.

Payment

Spiteful

Suite

Fastest

Deform

Disobey

Preplan

Optionality

Prettier

Mistreat

Premature


Some examples of english derivational morpheme

Some examples of English Derivational Morpheme

  • -ic : Noun  Adj

  • -ly : Adj  Adv

  • -ate : Noun  Verb

  • -ity : Adj  Noun

  • -ship : Noun  Noun

  • re- : Verb  Verb

  • alcohol  alcoholic

  • exact  exactly

  • vaccin  vaccinate

  • active  activity

  • friend  friendship

  • cover  recover


Complexe derivation

Complexe Derivation

Words with several layers of structure

  • Activation:N

    V

    A

    VAfAfAf

    Activeateion


Constraints on derivation

Constraints on Derivation

  • The suffix –ant

    Contest  contestant

    Defend  defendant

    Hunt 

*Huntant

 Hunter

WHY?

The suffix –ant can combine only with ____________________.


Constraints on derivation1

Constraints on Derivation

  • The suffix –en

    white  whiten

    dark  darken

    green 

*greenen

WHY?

The suffix –en can combine only a __________ base that ends in an obstruent.

 largen ?

How about large ?

The suffix –en can combine only a __________ _______base that ends in an ________ (Kwary, 2004).


Vi inflection

VI. Inflection

Inflection

Inflections in English


Inflection

Inflection

  • The modification of a word’s form to __________the ____________ ________to which it belongs

    • Ex:


The 9 english inflectional morphemes

The 9 English Inflectional Morphemes

Nouns

–splural

–’spossessive

Verbs

–sthird person singular present

–edpast tense

–en past participle

–ingprogressive

Adjectives

–ercomparative

–estsuperlative

-enpast participle


Inflection vs derivation

Inflection vs. derivation


Derivation vs inflection 1

It changes the __________and/or the __________of meaning of the word, so it is said to create __________.

Ex:

It does not change either the ______ __________or the __________________found in the word.

Ex:

Derivation vs. Inflection (1)


Morphology

Derivation vs. Inflection (2)

  • A derivational affix must combine with the base __________an inflectional affix.

    e.g. neighbour (base) + hood (DA) + s (IA)

    = neighbourhoods

    The following combination is unacceptable:

    neighbour (base) + s (IA) + hood (DA)

    = *neighbourshood


Morphology

Derivation vs. Inflection (3)

  • An inflectional affix in more __________than a derivational affix.

    EX: the inflectional suffix –s can combine with virtually any noun to form a plural noun.

    On the other hand,

    the derivational suffix –ant can combine only with Latinate bases.


Describe the italic affixes

Describe the italic affixes:

  • impossible

  • terrorized

  • terrorize

  • desks

  • dislike

  • humanity

  • fastest


Morphology

Describe the italic affixes:

premature

untie

darken

fallen

oxen

faster

lecturer


The suffix er

The suffix -er

  • Ex: sin - sinner


Vii morphological typology of languages

VII. Morphological Typology of Languages

Analytic (or isolating) languages

Synthetic languages:

Fusional (or inflectional) languages

Agglitinating Languages

Polysynthetic languages


Morphological typology of languages

Morphological Typology of Languages

  • Analytic (or isolating) languages

  • Synthetic languages:

    • Fusional (or inflectional) languages

    • Agglitinating Languages

    • Polysynthetic languages


Viii word formation

VIII. Word Formation

Compounding

Conversion

Clipping

Blending

Back-formation

Acronyms

Onomatopoeia

Eponyms & Trade names

Derivation

Other word formation processes


1 compounding

1. Compounding

  • Definition: Two or more words _______ _____________to form a new word.

  • Examples:


Properties of compounds

Properties of compounds

  • Properties of compounds

    • Lexical category

    • Stress

    • Plural


Endocentric vs exocentric compounds

Endocentric vs Exocentric Compounds

Note: The meaning of a compound is not always _____________________________.

  • Coconut oil  oil made from coconuts.

  • Olive oil  oil made from olives.

  • Baby oil 

  • blue-movies 

  • blue-chip 

oil for babies

NOT oil made from babies


2 conversion

2. Conversion

  • Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new ____________________.

  • Examples:


Conversion

Conversion

Taking Nouns and Adjectives and using them as verbs (and conjugating them).


3 clipping

3. Clipping

  • Definition: Shortening a ______________

    by ______________________________

  • Examples:

    • Facsimile 

    • Hamburger 

  • Gasoline 

  • Advertisement 


4 blends

4. Blends

  • Definition: Similar to compounds, but ______ ______________ are deleted.

  • Examples:


Is this a blend

Is this a blend?


Case study blends or compounds

Case Study: Blends or Compounds

  • ‘Wild-haired revolutionaries like Che Guevara have been replaced by clean-cut metrosexual icons like soccer star David Beckham and musician Ricky Martin.’ (cbsnews.com, 25th November 2003).

  • ‘No botox for the Retrosexual. No $1,000 haircuts. The retrosexual man eats red meat heartily and at times kills it himself.’ (The Washington Dispatch, 2nd May 2004).

  • Another recent coinage borne out of the current preoccupation with male stereotyping is the noun and adjective technosexual. (Macmillan Online, January 2005).


5 back formations

5. Back-formations

  • Definition: a process that creates a new word by __________a _________________ from another word in the language.

  • Examples:


6 acronyms

6. Acronyms

  • Definition: Words derived from the _________of several words

  • Examples:

Dad’sAgainst

Daughters

Dating !!!


7 onomatopoeia

7. Onomatopoeia

  • Definition: Words created to __________ the thing that they name.


8 eponyms

8. Eponyms

  • Definition: Words derived from _____ __ ___ __________.

  • Examples:


9 derivation

9. Derivation

  • Derivation is the process of forming a new word by adding a _______ _____________to a ________.

    • Ex:


9 other word formation process

9. Other Word Formation Process

  • Foreign word Borrowing


Let s invent words

Let’sinventwords!

  • Invent words that don’t already exist in English, and then define the process that was used to creat this word.


Intialism or acronym

Intialism or Acronym?

  • Initialism: An abbreviation created by________ __ __________ (e.g. PEI or USA) as letters rather than a word.

  • Acronym: A word that is forms by ________ ____________of some or all the words in a phrase or title and __________ __________ (e.g. NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization)


Ix other morphological phenomena

IX. Other Morphological Phenomena


Other morphological phenomena related to inflection

Other Morphological Phenomena related to inflection

Internal change

  • Process that substitutes one non-morphemic segment for another to mark grammatical contrast.

    • Different than infixing …

    • Examples:


Other morphological phenomena related to inflection1

Other Morphological Phenomena related to inflection

Suppletion

  • Replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast.

  • Ex:


Morphophonemics

Morphophonemics


Morphophonemics1

Morphophonemics

  • “Pronunciation can be sensitive to __________factors”

  • Example: English Plural

    • Allomorphs pronounced: /-s/, /-z/, /-əz/

    • The pronunciation of the suffix « –s » depends on the phonetic context.

    • Ex:

www.pearsoned.ca/ogrady


Allomorphs

Allomorphs

  • p. 95-96 (Rowe & Levine, 2012)

    Examples:

    • An & a

    • -s

    • The & the

Rowe & Levine, 2012


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