Morphology
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Morphology. LI 2013 Nathalie F. Martin. Table of Content. At the end of this chapter you will know: Morphemes Affixation: prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix Compound Words Lexical Categories Derivation Inflection Morphological Typology of Languages Word Formation

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Morphology

LI 2013 Nathalie F. Martin


Table of Content

At the end of this chapter you will know:

  • Morphemes

  • Affixation: prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix

  • Compound Words

  • Lexical Categories

  • Derivation

  • Inflection

  • Morphological Typology of Languages

  • Word Formation

  • Other morphological phenomenon

Reference: O’Grady & al. (2009); Rowe & al. (2012)


I. Morphemes

Morphology

Simple vs. Complex words

Free vs. bound morphemes


Morphology

  • Morphology:

    • The analysis of word __________.

    • The system of categories and rules involved in _______________ and __________________.


Word and Morpheme

  • Word: the smallest _________

    (an element that doesn’t have to occur in a fixed position)

  • Word simplevs. complex

    • Ex.

  • Morpheme: the smallest _________

    _________

  • Morpheme  free vs. bound

    • Ex.

Ex: dinosaurs


Question #1, p.139 O’Grady,2009

Fly

Desks

Untie

Tree

Dislike

Reuse

Triumphed

Delight

Justly

O’Grady, 2009


II. Affixation

Root, affix

Base

Affix:

prefix, suffix, infixes & circumfixes


Roots & affixes

  • Root: Serves as a building block for other words (usually, but not always a free morpheme)

  • Affix: Bound morphemes added to the root.


Affixation

  • Prefix: An affix that is attached to the _________of a base,

    • Ex. re-play.

  • Suffix: An affix that is attached to the _________of a base.

    • Ex. kind-ness.


Affixation

  • Infix: An affix that occur _________a base

    • Ex: Tagalog: write = sulat/ written = sinulat.

      • The infix -in- changes the verb from present to past tense.

  • Circumfixes: Where you _________ ___________(sometimes surrounding the root).

    • Ex: Arabic: Book = kitab / Wrote = kataba / has been written= kutib

    • Ex: Hebrew


Hebrew and Affixes

The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible  By Jeff A. Benner


Hebrew and Affixes

הִמְטִיר (hee-teer)

  • This is the verb מטר (M.Th.R) meaning to "rain." The structure of the verb also identifies the verb tense as perfect – he rained. The prefix ה (hee) along with the י (ee) infix, identifies the verb as a hiphil (causative) verb – he made rain, or he caused to rain. But, the preceding word לא negates this verb – he did not cause it to rain.

www.ancient-hebrew.org/emagazine/046.doc


Examples of English Affixes

  • -able

  • -ing

  • -ish

  • -ize

  • Anti-

  • Ex-

  • Re-

  • In-


Analyzing Word Structure

Underline the root.

Circle the affix.

Draw a structure diagram.

Payment

Spiteful

Suite

Fastest

Deform

Disobey

Preplan

Optionality

Prettier

Mistreat

Premature


III. Compound Words

Closed-form compound

Hyphenated compound

Open-form compound


Compound Words

  • Closed-form compound:

  • Hyphenated compound:

  • Open-form compound:


What kind of Compound Word is this

  • Brain waves

  • Turnstile


What kind of Compound Word is this?

  • Hair plugs

  • Fast food


IV. Lexical Categories

A small overview


Noun (N)

Verb (V)

Adjective (A)

Preposition (P)

Adverb (Adv)

moisture, policy

melt, remain

good, intelligent

to, near

slowly, now

Syntactic Categories (1)


Determiner (Det)

Auxiliary (Aux)

Conjunction (Con)

Interjection

the, this, my

will, can

and, or

Oh, goodness sake, whatever

Syntactic Categories (2)


Exercise: Word class

  • betterment

  • the

  • him

  • elegant

  • inconvenience

  • eloquently

  • comply

  • inasmuch as

  • over

Determine the word class of each of the following words.


V. Derivation

English derivational affixes

Complex derivation

Constraints in derivation

Two classes of derivational affixes


Derivation

  • An affixational process that forms a word with a _____________ and/or ___________ _________from that of it’s base.

  • Ex:


Examples of English Derivational Affixes

  • See pages 117 or O’Grady.

O’Grady, 2009


Derivation

  • Illustrated through trees:

    NV

    VAfAAf

    treatmentmodern ize


Let’s Practice

Underline the root.

Circle the base.

Draw a structure diagram.

Payment

Spiteful

Suite

Fastest

Deform

Disobey

Preplan

Optionality

Prettier

Mistreat

Premature


Some examples of English Derivational Morpheme

  • -ic : Noun  Adj

  • -ly : Adj  Adv

  • -ate : Noun  Verb

  • -ity : Adj  Noun

  • -ship : Noun  Noun

  • re- : Verb  Verb

  • alcohol  alcoholic

  • exact  exactly

  • vaccin  vaccinate

  • active  activity

  • friend  friendship

  • cover  recover


Complexe Derivation

Words with several layers of structure

  • Activation:N

    V

    A

    VAfAfAf

    Activeateion


Constraints on Derivation

  • The suffix –ant

    Contest  contestant

    Defend  defendant

    Hunt 

*Huntant

 Hunter

WHY?

The suffix –ant can combine only with ____________________.


Constraints on Derivation

  • The suffix –en

    white  whiten

    dark  darken

    green 

*greenen

WHY?

The suffix –en can combine only a __________ base that ends in an obstruent.

 largen ?

How about large ?

The suffix –en can combine only a __________ _______base that ends in an ________ (Kwary, 2004).


VI. Inflection

Inflection

Inflections in English


Inflection

  • The modification of a word’s form to __________the ____________ ________to which it belongs

    • Ex:


The 9 English Inflectional Morphemes

Nouns

–splural

–’spossessive

Verbs

–sthird person singular present

–edpast tense

–en past participle

–ingprogressive

Adjectives

–ercomparative

–estsuperlative

-enpast participle


Inflection vs. derivation


It changes the __________and/or the __________of meaning of the word, so it is said to create __________.

Ex:

It does not change either the ______ __________or the __________________found in the word.

Ex:

Derivation vs. Inflection (1)


Derivation vs. Inflection (2)

  • A derivational affix must combine with the base __________an inflectional affix.

    e.g. neighbour (base) + hood (DA) + s (IA)

    = neighbourhoods

    The following combination is unacceptable:

    neighbour (base) + s (IA) + hood (DA)

    = *neighbourshood


Derivation vs. Inflection (3)

  • An inflectional affix in more __________than a derivational affix.

    EX: the inflectional suffix –s can combine with virtually any noun to form a plural noun.

    On the other hand,

    the derivational suffix –ant can combine only with Latinate bases.


Describe the italic affixes:

  • impossible

  • terrorized

  • terrorize

  • desks

  • dislike

  • humanity

  • fastest


Describe the italic affixes:

premature

untie

darken

fallen

oxen

faster

lecturer


The suffix -er

  • Ex: sin - sinner


VII. Morphological Typology of Languages

Analytic (or isolating) languages

Synthetic languages:

Fusional (or inflectional) languages

Agglitinating Languages

Polysynthetic languages


Morphological Typology of Languages

  • Analytic (or isolating) languages

  • Synthetic languages:

    • Fusional (or inflectional) languages

    • Agglitinating Languages

    • Polysynthetic languages


VIII. Word Formation

Compounding

Conversion

Clipping

Blending

Back-formation

Acronyms

Onomatopoeia

Eponyms & Trade names

Derivation

Other word formation processes


1. Compounding

  • Definition: Two or more words _______ _____________to form a new word.

  • Examples:


Properties of compounds

  • Properties of compounds

    • Lexical category

    • Stress

    • Plural


Endocentric vs Exocentric Compounds

Note: The meaning of a compound is not always _____________________________.

  • Coconut oil  oil made from coconuts.

  • Olive oil  oil made from olives.

  • Baby oil 

  • blue-movies 

  • blue-chip 

oil for babies

NOT oil made from babies


2. Conversion

  • Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new ____________________.

  • Examples:


Conversion

Taking Nouns and Adjectives and using them as verbs (and conjugating them).


3. Clipping

  • Definition: Shortening a ______________

    by ______________________________

  • Examples:

    • Facsimile 

    • Hamburger 

  • Gasoline 

  • Advertisement 


4. Blends

  • Definition: Similar to compounds, but ______ ______________ are deleted.

  • Examples:


Is this a blend?


Case Study: Blends or Compounds

  • ‘Wild-haired revolutionaries like Che Guevara have been replaced by clean-cut metrosexual icons like soccer star David Beckham and musician Ricky Martin.’ (cbsnews.com, 25th November 2003).

  • ‘No botox for the Retrosexual. No $1,000 haircuts. The retrosexual man eats red meat heartily and at times kills it himself.’ (The Washington Dispatch, 2nd May 2004).

  • Another recent coinage borne out of the current preoccupation with male stereotyping is the noun and adjective technosexual. (Macmillan Online, January 2005).


5. Back-formations

  • Definition: a process that creates a new word by __________a _________________ from another word in the language.

  • Examples:


6. Acronyms

  • Definition: Words derived from the _________of several words

  • Examples:

Dad’sAgainst

Daughters

Dating !!!


7. Onomatopoeia

  • Definition: Words created to __________ the thing that they name.


8. Eponyms

  • Definition: Words derived from _____ __ ___ __________.

  • Examples:


9. Derivation

  • Derivation is the process of forming a new word by adding a _______ _____________to a ________.

    • Ex:


9. Other Word Formation Process

  • Foreign word Borrowing


Let’sinventwords!

  • Invent words that don’t already exist in English, and then define the process that was used to creat this word.


Intialism or Acronym?

  • Initialism: An abbreviation created by________ __ __________ (e.g. PEI or USA) as letters rather than a word.

  • Acronym: A word that is forms by ________ ____________of some or all the words in a phrase or title and __________ __________ (e.g. NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization)


IX. Other Morphological Phenomena


Other Morphological Phenomena related to inflection

Internal change

  • Process that substitutes one non-morphemic segment for another to mark grammatical contrast.

    • Different than infixing …

    • Examples:


Other Morphological Phenomena related to inflection

Suppletion

  • Replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast.

  • Ex:


Morphophonemics


Morphophonemics

  • “Pronunciation can be sensitive to __________factors”

  • Example: English Plural

    • Allomorphs pronounced: /-s/, /-z/, /-əz/

    • The pronunciation of the suffix « –s » depends on the phonetic context.

    • Ex:

www.pearsoned.ca/ogrady


Allomorphs

  • p. 95-96 (Rowe & Levine, 2012)

    Examples:

    • An & a

    • -s

    • The & the

Rowe & Levine, 2012


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