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Chapter 10. Somatic and Special Senses. Sensory Receptors = detect environmental changes and trigger impulses that travel to central nervous system for interpretation 2 major categories of sensory receptors: 1. somatic senses = touch, pressure, temperature and pain

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Somatic and Special Senses


  • Sensory Receptors = detect environmental changes and trigger impulses that travel to central nervous system for interpretation

  • 2 major categories of sensory receptors:

    • 1. somatic senses = touch, pressure, temperature and pain

    • 2. special senses = smell, taste, hearing, equilibrium and vision

10.1


  • 5 Types of Receptors:

    1. Chemoreceptors = changes in chemical concentration

    2. Pain Receptors = detect tissue damage

    3. Thermoreceptors = temperature differences

    4. Mechanoreceptors = pressure or movement differences

    5. Photoreceptors = light energy

10.2


  • Special Senses

    • Smell------------Olfactory Organs

    • Taste--------------Taste Buds

    • Hearing----------Ears

    • Equilibrium----Ears

    • Sight--------------Eyes

10.4


10 5 smell

  • Olfactory Receptors = chemoreceptor s (chemicals dissolved in liquids stimulate them)

  • Olfactory Organs contain olfactory receptors

  • Olfactory Receptors Cells = neurons surrounded by cells and cilia(protrude into nasal cavity); before sense of smell, odorant molecules must dissolve in watery fluid (around cilia)

  • Located in upper nasal cavity

10.5 - SMELL



10 5 smell2

Did you know? Humans have about 12 million olfactory receptor cells. Bloodhounds have about 4 billion such cells!

  • 1. Olfactory receptors stimulated (Synapse with olfactory bulb)

  • 2. Olfactory bulb analyze impulse

  • 3. Olfactory cortex (temporal lobe-brain)

  • 4. Sense of Smell

10.5 - SMELL


10 6 taste

  • Taste Buds receptor cells. Bloodhounds have about 4 billion such cells!= special organs of taste

  • Approximately 10,000 located primarily on the surface of tongue within papillae.

  • Approximately 1,000 are scattered in the roof of the mouth and walls of the throat.

10.6 - TASTE


10 6 taste1

10.6 - TASTE


10 6 taste2

Did you know? Cats have only about 473 taste buds and dogs have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

  • Taste receptors stimulated

  • Impulses analyzed; sent to gustatory cortex (parietal lobe)

  • Sense of taste

10.6 - TASTE


10 6 taste3
10.6 - TASTE have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.


10 7 hearing

  • Ear Parts have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.: External, Middle, Internal

  • Provide hearing and equilibrium

10.7 - HEARING


10 7 hearing1

  • External Ear: have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    Auricle (pinna) = funnel structure that collects sound

    External Acoustic Meatus (canal) = transports sound

10.7 - HEARING


10 7 hearing2

  • Middle Ear: have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    Tympanic Cavity= air filled space of temporal bone

    Auditory Ossicles = 3 small bones within the middle ear/tympanic cavity: malleus, incus, stapes

10.7 - HEARING


10 7 hearing3

  • Auditory/Eustachian Tube have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    = Connects the middle ear to the throat

  • Maintains equal air pressure on both sides of tympanic cavity

10.7 - HEARING


10 7 hearing4

SOUND TRANSMISSION have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

  • Tympanic membrane vibrates malleus, vibrates incus, vibrates stapes

  • Stapes vibrates oval window fluid (inner ear) & receptors stimulated

10.7 HEARING


10 7 hearing5

  • Inner Ear: have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    Labyrinth= system of communicating chambers and tubes

    2 parts to labyrinth:

    • Osseous Labyrinth - outside

    • Perilymph = fluid between Osseous & Membranous

    • Membranous Labyrinth - inside

    • Endolymph = fluid in membranous

10.7 - HEARING


10 7 hearing6

  • Inner Ear: have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    Cochlea= houses organ of hearing (organ of Corti)

    Organ of Corti: contains hair cells (receptors on the basilar membrane) that extend into the cochlear duct

10.7 - HEARING


10 8 equilibrium

  • 2 Parts: have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    Static Equilibrium=maintain head position when still

    Dynamic Equilibrium = maintain balance when moving

10.8 - EQUILIBRIUM


10 8 equilibrium1

  • STATIC: have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    • organs of static equilibrium located in vestibule (bone chamber between semi circular canals and cochlea)

    • Membranous labyrinth inside vestibule has 2 chambers (utricle and saccule)

    • Within chambers is structure called macula that contain numerous hairs acting as sensory receptors.

    • Otoliths = grains of calcium carbonate w/in mass of gelatinous material

10.8 - EQUILIBRIUM


O have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.


10 8 equilibrium2

  • DYNAMIC: have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    • organs of dynamic equilibrium are 3 semicircular canals

    • Semicircular canal functions = 1. detect head motion 2. balance head and body during sudden movement

    • Crista Ampullarisorgans of dynamic equilibrium that contain sensory hair cells

    • Like hairs of maculae, these extend upward into dome-shaped gelatinous mass, cupula

10.8 - EQUILIBRIUM


10 9 sight

  • Accessory Organs have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

  • Eyelids

  • Lacrimal apparatus – tears lubricate & cleanse eye; contains enzyme (lysozyme) that acts as an antibacterial agent

  • Extrinsic muscles – six muscles attached to the sclera (white part) that move the eye in all directions

10.9 - SIGHT


10 9 sight1

  • Eye Structure (3 layers) have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

  • Outer (fibrous) layer

  • Middle (vascular) layer

  • Inner (nervous) layer

  • Spaces are filled with fluid that support and help maintain shape.

10.9 - SIGHT


10 9 sight2

  • Outer (fibrous) layer have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    • Cornea transparent; helps focus entering light

    • Sclera white; protects the eye and point of attachment for 6 extrinsic muscles

      • Optic nerve and blood vessels pierce the posterior (back)

10.9 - SIGHT


10 9 sight3

  • Middle (vascular) layer have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    • Choroid coat dark coloration; provides nourishment; keeps inside of eye dark

    • Ciliary body ring of ciliary muscles; holds eye in place; allows lens to change focus;

    • Iris colored portion; between cornea and lens; controls amount of light that enters;

      • Anterior Chamber = cornea & iris

      • Posterior Chamber = iris & lens

      • Aqueous Humor = fluid that fills space and helps nourish

10.9 - SIGHT


10 9 sight4

  • Inner (nervous) layer have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    • Retina contain visual receptor cells (photoreceptors)

    • When a person sees something, the object is giving off light or light waves are reflected from it. Light waves enter eye and retina focuses it by bending the light waves (refraction).

10.9 - SIGHT


10 9 sight5

  • Inner (nervous) layer have about 1,700…..that is why they are satisfied with a less varied diet than humans.

    • 2 types of visual receptors: Rods & Cones

      • Rods = light sensitivity

      • Cones = color

10.9 - SIGHT


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