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The AMERICAN Revolutionary War 1775-1783. FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS Philadelphia - September, 1774. Prepare colonies for possible revolt Begin to create militias Most colonists don’t want a total split…yet Just don’t want to be taxed unfairly “No taxation w/out Representation”.

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first continental congress philadelphia september 1774
FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS Philadelphia - September, 1774
  • Prepare colonies for possible revolt
  • Begin to create militias
  • Most colonists don’t want a total split…yet
  • Just don’t want to be taxed unfairly
  • “No taxation w/out Representation”
the opening of the revolt
King George III interprets colonists’ actions as rebellion

Sends Redcoats to supress

Brits learn where John Hancock & Sam Adams are (Lexington)

Also learn where secret militia storage supply is (Concord)

700 British troops secretly set out to capture both

BUT…

The Opening of the Revolt
patriots learn of british plan
Patriots learn of British Plan

“TWO IF BY LAND, ONE IF BY SEA”

slide6
Need to send someone to ride out to Lexington and Concord & to Philadelphia
  • Warn of the coming British ambush
  • Who???
paul revere s midnight ride
PAUL REVERE’S MIDNIGHT RIDE???
  • Riders: Sam Prescott, William Dawes, Israel Bissell & Revere
  • Revere and Dawes captured after 20 miles
  • Prescott made it to Concord
  • Only Bissell made it to Philadelphia to warn
  • Killed his horse he rode so hard
why revere so famous
Jump to 1860

USA on brink of Civil War

Need something to unify people

Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wants to sell a book

Writes “Midnight Ride of Paul Revere”

Becomes a hit – legend becomes truth

Why Revere so Famous???
slide12

Listen my children and you shall hear

  • Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere,
  • On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five; Hardly a man is now alive
  • Who remembers that famous day and year.
  • He said to his friend, "If the British march By land or sea from the town to-night, Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch Of the North Church tower as a signal light,– One if by land, and two if by sea; And I on the opposite shore will be, Ready to ride and spread the alarm Through every Middlesex village and farm, For the country folk to be up and to arm."
battle of lexington april 19 1775 the shots heard round the world
BATTLE OF LEXINGTONAPRIL 19, 1775“THE SHOTS HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD”
  • First battles of war
  • British looking to capture rebel leaders and supplies
  • Brits meet 70 Militia, who begin to disperse
  • Someone fires?
  • British gun down militiamen
  • 8 killed, 10 wounded
battle of concord april 19 1775 later that day
BATTLE OF CONCORDAPRIL 19, 1775 (later that day)
  • Word spreads about the “murders”
  • Patriots want revenge
  • Assemble 300 on North Bridge
  • Kill 14 British, who are exhausted
  • Brits retreat back to Boston
battle map
BATTLE MAP
  • Patriots keep attacking from trees the whole march back. 250 British killed. (90 minutemen)
second continental congress philadelphia may 10 1775
SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS Philadelphia - MAY 10, 1775
  • Continental Army officially created
  • Washington named C in C of Army
  • Accepts w/ no pay
  • Still No Call for Independence from “Gov’t”
  • Olive Branch Petition – plea to King to work it out
general george washington
GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON
  • On the day he is commissioned General…
bunker hill battle don t fire until you can see the whites of their eyes patriot william prescott
BUNKER HILL BATTLE“Don’t fire until you can see the Whites of their Eyes” - Patriot William Prescott
slide26
British foolishly advance up hill numerous times – thought Patriots would run
  • They didn’t
  • 1,000 British Killed
  • 250 Patriots killed
  • Compromise now unreachable to King
  • Colonial Gov’t STILL not want total independence!!!
  • Until…
so we are at war how can we win
So we are at war…How can we win???
  • American Strategy:
  • Can’t go head to head with British Empire
  • Must make war last as long as possible
  • Make British give it up
  • Use guerilla tactics – quick strikes and get out BUT…
  • GW did want a traditional army and trained for it
after a while
After a while…
  • War NOT going well at all
  • Morale very low in Continental Army
  • Washington has not yet won a battle
  • Enlistments will expire end of the year
  • Sooooooo…
  • Washington has plan to deliver Xmas Victory
  • Will attack a Hessian camp at Trenton
xmas campaigns 1776
XMAS Campaigns, 1776
  • Trenton and Princeton
  • 2 Small Victories, but gave Army HOPE
  • GW gets new enlistments
  • Tells British colonists are tough and this will be a long fight
army grinds it out for another year
Army Grinds it out for another year
  • One Significant battle
  • October 17, 1777 – Battle of Saratoga, NY
  • Continentals win, but more importantly
  • Win convinces France to intervene in the War on Patriots side
  • British want to negotiate, Colonists Don’t
11 000 men in camp
11,000 men in camp
  • Brutally cold Winter
  • No Supplies for troops
  • 3,000 will die from elements
  • Very low Morale – Many Desertions
  • Maybe only 1,000 actually stay and stick it out
  • GW incredibly stressed out
  • Congress has nothing to send the Army
continental army problems
Continental Army Problems
  • Only GW holds it together – his strength and personality
  • Army size always changing
  • Very short of supplies
  • (Never know what if anything will get from Congress)
slide52
After early success (capture of Charleston SC)
  • British CommanderLord Cornwalliscan’t totally defeat “rebels”
  • Eventually forced Northward
  • Tries to cut off Rebel supplies in VA
  • Gets info from…
benedict arnold
Benedict Arnold
  • General in Continental Army
  • Hero of Saratoga Battle
  • Passed over by Congress

for promotion – becomes very bitter

  • Gives info to British about GW tactics
  • Commits Treason
  • Plotted to surrender fort at West Point for $20,000 and a commission in British Army
the end nears
The End Nears…
  • Cornwallis chooses to regroup and resupply at Yorktown, VA
  • Thought site was defensible
  • Becomes trapped in by advancing Continental army &…
  • France shows up in the harbor, blocking escape
  • British surrender – fighting ends 1781
october 17 1781
October 17, 1781
  • 4 years to the day of Saratoga victory
  • Truce to end fighting agreed on between GW & Cornwalis
  • Treaty (PEACE OF PARIS) signed 2 years later on Sept. 3, 1783
  • Ends the American Revolution
why did america win
Why did America win???
  • Colonials able to drag out the war
  • British Gave it up
  • Became too Expensive to keep fighting
  • American strategy pays off
  • NOW THERE IS A NEW COUNTRY!!!!
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