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HEAL Africa H ealth, E ducation, community A ction, L eadership development Goma , Democratic Republic of the Congo The need for a global response to gender based violence Lowy Institute Sydney, 9 th September 2009. Whose fault?. 1960 Independence 1960-65 Civil War

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HEAL AfricaHealth, Education, community Action, Leadership developmentGoma, Democratic Republic of the Congo

The need for a global response to gender based violence

Lowy Institute

Sydney, 9thSeptember 2009



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  • 1960 Independence

  • 1960-65 Civil War

  • 1965 Beginning of Mobutu’s totalitarian rule

  • 1973 Zairianisation

  • 1990 Fall of the Berlin wall

  • 1991 Multiparty Democracy – end of the MPR

  • 1991, 1992 Looting

  • 1992 – 1993 Vicious attempts at ethnic cleansing in Ituri, Masisi, South Kivu, Katanga

  • 1994 Rwandan refugees flooded into North and South Kivu, continuing ethnic attacks on rural populations of North and South Kivu

  • 1996 1st Kabila war, forcing the refugees to return and sending interahamwe and Rwanda soldiers into the interior of Congo

  • 1997 Overthrow of Mobutu and installation of Laurent Kabila

  • 1998 Expulsion of Tutsis from Government and RCD rebellion against Kabila; invasion by Uganda and Rwanda; Kinshasa defended by troops from Angola, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Tchad, and the ex-Rwandan army


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  • 2000Uganda and Rwanda quarrel on Congolese soil; fierce hostilities break out between Hema and Lendu in the gold and oil rich region of Ituri

  • January 2001 Assassination of Kabila, who was replaced by his 29 year old son, Joseph Kabila

  • July 2002 Sun City peace process begins

  • June 2003: final signature of the Sun City agreement and start of a two year transition towards an elected government.

  • 2005 Referendum on the new constitution

  • 2006 Elections bringing Kabila to power as an elected president; beginning of decentralisation

  • 2006 to the present day: continued fighting in Ituri, North and South Kivu with lucrative involvement of foreign powers and globalised business interests; various peace agreements.

  • Over 1 million IDPs in the east, and sexual violence rampant


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  • loss of physical control of its territory, or of the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force therein

  • erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions

  • an inability to provide reasonable public services, and

  • an inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community.

A failed state






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  • Lutundula Commission on mining contracts in Congo 1998

  • UN report on illegal exploitation of minerals 2001

  • Value of production in 2005: 4 500m$US

  • Potential receipts of the state: 390m$US

  • Actual receipts from the natural resources sector: 16,4 million $US in 2004

  • Les ressources naturelles en République démocratique

  • du Congo - Un potentiel de développement?

  • Carla Berke, KfW Entwicklungsbank Avril 2007


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Efforts at regulation

  • Certified Trading Chains in Mineral Production Great Lakes Region Markus Wagner: Fatal Transactions

  • Certification of origin of metals from conflict regions

    USSenators Durbin and Brounback


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Our responsibility

  • Research the mechanics of faceless capitalism

  • Identify chains of accountability for globalised investment

  • Our right to a decent income must not be bought at the price of someone else’s destitution



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