Key Individuals

Key Individuals PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Giuseppe Mazzini. Born in GenoaStudied to be a lawyerBecame member of the Carbonari in 1827Led failed attempts at revolution during the 1830sFounded

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Key Individuals

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1. Key Individuals

2. Giuseppe Mazzini Born in Genoa Studied to be a lawyer Became member of the Carbonari in 1827 Led failed attempts at revolution during the 1830s Founded ‘Young Italy’ Elected to the Triumvirate in 1849 Criticised new Italian state after 1870

3. What were Mazzini’s aims?

4. What were Mazzini’s methods?

5. How big an impact did Mazzini have on the Unification of Italy? Gave encouragement to Italian patriotism Presented new view of Italy Inspired Garibaldi to join movement Helped to win international publicity for Italian freedom. Defence of Rome in 1849 was heroic failure By his actions put pressure on Cavour and others to act more positively

6. How successful was Mazzini? Had little practical experience Overestimated level of support – ignored problems of the peasants Support was limited – used Carbonari methods All his plots failed! Some middle class alienated by his revolutionary stance Made no attempt to win support from peasants and town workers

7. Mazzini’s verdict on Italy, 1871 Italian territory under foreign control Foreigners had played too important a role in unification Unhappy with new constitution

8. Count Emilio Cavour Member of Piedmontese ruling class Great admirer of British system of government Initially aimed at expanding Piedmont rather than uniting Italy

9. Cavour – Foreign Policy Aware of shortcomings of ‘Italia fara da se’ Aimed to move Austrians out of Lombardy & Venetia As PM had considerable control over foreign policy 1854 – outbreak of Crimean War: Britain & France vs Russia 15,000 troops sent to support France & GB

10. Cavour and the Crimean War Some doubt over motivation but perhaps aimed to gain support from GB & France Troops played only minor role but did win respect & gratitude from allies Congress of Paris (1856) dealt with peace negotiations Cavour not directly involved in talks

11. Cavour wins support Foreign support & diplomacy seen as main successes Also important was link with National Society Number of its leaders beginning to accept Piedmont as focus for unification Cavour now looked to France for help against Austria

12. Napoleon III and Italian Unity Former member of the Carbonari His troops had crushed Roman Republic in 1849 Had his own reasons for aiding Piedmont Probably favoured federation headed by Pope

13. The Orsini Bomb Plot! In January 1848 Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III Hoped that this would aid Italian unity Did spur Napoleon III into action Agreement made via Compact of Plombieres

14. War with Austria 1859 War provoked with Austria French (with limited help from Piedmont) won 2 closely fought victories Austria on brink of surrender Napoleon III now pulled put of the war – Truce of Villafranca! Cavour was furious – resigned as PM

15. Cavour and Garibaldi Garibaldi raised volunteers to fight for Savoy Instead went to Sicily Cavour not happy – feared consequences of Garibaldi’s actions Was torn between trying to stop Garibaldi and offering support Attempts to stop him failed!

16. Cavour and the Papal States Biggest problem for Cavour was fear of French or Austrian intervention To forestall Garibaldi marching on Rome Cavour sent troops into the Papal States Piedmontese troops successful but did not receive the same level of support as Garibaldi’s men By end of 1861 Victor Emmanuel acclaimed first King of Italy Cavour died end of 1861

17. Giuseppe Garibaldi Great romantic figure of the Risorgimento Charismatic guerrilla leader Had distinguished himself in the defence of Rome Was a follower of Mazzini

18. Garibaldi & the campaign of 1861 Hi-jacked the popular revolt in Sicily Used great cunning to gain control of the island His ‘1000 Red Shirts’ gained more and more support Had more problems on the mainland but was successful in defeating King of Naples Handed his conquests over to VE II

19. Italy 1861-1870 Kingdom of Italy declared – Victor Emmanuel II ‘by the grace of God and the rule of the people’ First parliament met in Turin, March 1861 1866 VE II anxious to prove Italian military prowess 2 shattering defeats followed – no support from Venetians!

20. Italy 1861-1870 (2) Venetia occupied after Austrian defeat – voted to join with Italy Garibaldi made 2 failed attempts to seize Rome (1862, 1867) – little support from the Romans 1870 Franco-Prussian War saw withdrawal of French garrison Pius XI soon withdrew to the Vatican

21. How united was Italy by 1870? Bad relations with the Papacy Lack of common language Spread of Piedmontese constitution caused conflict Franchise restricted – ˝ million/22 million Liberal aims had little in common with peasantry Severe economic problems ‘Brigands’ War’ in the South for many years Political system did not develop well

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