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Napoleon Bonaparte. Libertyville HS. Napoleon Seized Power. 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow Directory Why was Napoleon asked? Very popular general Brought with the loyalty of the Army Coup successful; replaced Directory with Consulate

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napoleon bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte

Libertyville HS

napoleon seized power
Napoleon Seized Power
  • 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow Directory
  • Why was Napoleon asked?
    • Very popular general
    • Brought with the loyalty of the Army
  • Coup successful; replaced Directory with Consulate
  • 1801: Napoleon became “First Consul” for life (dictator)
reforms of consul napoleon
Reforms of “Consul Napoleon”
  • Improved schools
  • Clarified tax code
  • Built new roads
  • Established new law code
    • Code Napoleon
    • Introduced Enlightenment principles into legal system
  • Sold French lands in America to American government
the louisiana purchase 1803
The Louisiana Purchase (1803)
  • Napoleon had plan to defeat British in Carribbean
  • BUT French troops sent to Haiti, were defeated
  • Napoleon realized he couldn’t defend US lands so he offered to sell to US for $0.03 per acre
  • No one knew how big it was!
emperor napoleon
Emperor Napoleon
  • Crowned self emperor, in 1805
    • Claimed to want to prevent Bourbon (royal family) from re-establishing monarchy
    • Hypocritical?
  • Napoleon went on to conquer most of Europe
    • Power hungry conqueror or enlightenment liberator?
    • In states he conquered, he set up constitutions, law codes, abolished feudalism, fostered education, etc.
emperor napoleon1
Emperor Napoleon
  • “I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I purified the Revolution.”
napoleonic wars 1805 12
Napoleonic Wars, 1805-12
  • 1805: Coalition of Britain, Austria & Russia vs. France formed
  • Austria, Russia attacked from East
    • Battle of Austerlitz (1805)
  • Napoleon ordered invasion of England
  • Spanish, French fleet defeated by Brits at Trafalgar (1805)
nw continental system
NW: Continental System
  • Attempt to create a Europe wide boycott of English goods, trade
  • Hurt English economy
  • Hurt European economy
  • Ultimately unsuccessful
napoleonic wars
Napoleonic Wars
  • 1806-07: Another anti-French coalition formed: Prussia, Russia, England
    • French conquered Prussians, defeat Russians
  • France took over, ended HRE
  • Napoleon and Czar Alexander I
    • Decide to split up (Partition) Poland
    • Ended Holy Roman Empire

Partition of 1795; Napoleon took the

“Prussia” and “Austria” parts in 1807

nw peninsular war 1808 1812
NW: Peninsular War, 1808-1812
  • Portugal wouldn’t take part in Continental System
  • Napoleon asked Spain to invade Portugal; they refused
  • Napoleon invaded Spain
  • Brits supported Spain, Portugal with money, weapons and troops
  • Guerrilla warfare
  • War tied down several hundred thousand troops
napoleonic wars invasion of russia 1812 13
Napoleonic Wars: Invasion of Russia (1812-13)
  • Russia stopped taking part in Continental System AND started massing troops on French / Polish border
  • Napoleon invaded Russia w/ ½ million men
  • Russians retreated: “Scorched Earth” policy
  • French captured Moscow
  • “General Winter”
  • Losses
    • French lost over 90% of army
    • Russians lost about 300,000 troops and several 100,000 civilians
retreat and abdication
Retreat and Abdication
  • Napoleon continued to fight, but his empire fell apart
    • Coalition against France: Russia, Prussia, England, Spain, Portugal
  • Napoleon fought, but outnumbered 5 to 1
  • Gave unconditional surrender, 4/11/14
  • French royalists restored Louis XVII to throne
  • Napoleon exiled to Elba
the hundred days
“The Hundred Days”
  • Napoleon returned to France after hearing a rumor he was to be moved to different island
  • March on Paris: 5th regiment under Ney story
  • King Louis XVII fled, and Napoleon began raising a new army
battle of waterloo 1815
Battle of Waterloo (1815)
  • Separate English & Prussian armies were in Belgium
  • Napoleon attacked Prussians, pushing them back
  • Turned on British, who were led by Duke of Wellington
  • British ground down French until Prussians showed up
exile and death
Exile and Death
  • Napoleon exiled to St. Helena, a small island off coast of Africa
  • Died in 1821
  • Legacy
    • One of the greatest military leaders, ever
    • Promoted growth of centralized European state
    • Spread enlightenment ideas throughout Europe
    • Stimulated nationalist movements throughout Europe
congress of vienna
Congress of Vienna
  • Meeting of all European countries to redraw map of Europe
  • Major powers of meeting: Austria, England, Russia & Prussia - & France!
  • Goals
    • Organize lasting peace
    • Contain, but don’t punish, France
    • Restore legit rulers
congress of vienna1
Congress of Vienna
  • Significance of Congress
    • Avoided a major European war for 100 years
    • Represented a conservative reaction to French Revolution
    • Peace and stability were exchanged for liberty, civil rights of French Rev.
  • Good trade?