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Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) And Submission Agreements. NOAA DSA TIM Donald Sawyer/NASA/GSFC 26-October 2005. Topics (time permitting). OAIS Reference Model Producer-Archive Interface Methodology Abstract Standard

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Reference model for an open archival information system oais and submission agreements

Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)And Submission Agreements

NOAA DSA TIM

Donald Sawyer/NASA/GSFC

26-October 2005


Topics time permitting
Topics (time permitting)

  • OAIS Reference Model

  • Producer-Archive Interface Methodology Abstract Standard

  • Submission Information Package (SIP) standardization (separate presentation)


Oais reference model
OAIS Reference Model

  • Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems

    • International group of space agencies

    • Developed variety of science discipline- independent standards

    • Became working body for an ISO TC 20/ SC 13 about 1990

      TC20: Aircraft and Space Vehicles

      SC13: Space Data and Information Transfer Systems

    • Ensured broad participation, including traditional archives

      (Not restricted to space communities; all participation was welcomed!)


What is a reference model
What is a Reference Model?

  • A framework

    • for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment, and

    • for the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that environment.

  • A reference model

    • is based on a small number of unifying concepts

    • is an abstraction of the key concepts, their relationships, and their interfaces both to each other and to the external environment

    • may be used as a basis for education and explaining standards to a non-specialist.


Organizational approach
Organizational Approach

  • Organized US contribution under a framework with NASA lead

    • Established liaison with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

    • Agency archives and users must be represented in this process

  • An “Open” process

    • Important to stimulate dialogue with broad archive/user communities

    • Results of US and International workshops put on WEB

    • Supported e-mail comments/critiques


Technical approach 1
Technical Approach: 1

  • Investigate other Reference Models.

    • ISO “Seven Layer”Communications Reference Model

    • ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing

    • ISO TC211 Reference Model for Geomantics

  • Define what is meant by ‘archiving of data’

  • Break ‘archiving’ into a few functional areas (e.g., ingest, storage, access, and preservation planning)


Technical approach 2
Technical Approach: 2

  • Define a set of interfaces between the functional areas

  • Define a set of data classes for use in Archiving

  • Choose formal specification techniques

    • Data flow diagrams for functional models and interfaces

    • Unified Modeling Language (UML) for data classes


Results 1
Results: 1

  • Reference Model targeted to several categories of reader

    • Archive designers

    • Archive users

    • Archive managers, to clarify digital preservation issues and assist in securing appropriate resources

    • Standards developers

  • Adopted terminology that crosses various disciplines

    • Traditional archivists

    • Scientific data centers

    • Digital libraries


Results 2
Results: 2

  • Widely adopted as starting point in digital preservation efforts

    • Digital libraries (e.g., Netherlands National Library)

    • Traditional archives (e.g., US National Archives)

    • Scientific data centers (e.g., National Space Science Data Center)

    • Commercial Organizations (e.g., Aerospace Industries Association preservation working team)

  • Published as final CCSDS standard (Blue Book) available from:

    http://www.ccsds.org/documents/650x0b1.pdf

  • Published as a final ISO standard: ISO 14721: 2003


Purpose and scope 1
Purpose and Scope: 1

  • Framework for understanding and applying concepts needed for long-term digital information preservation

    • Long-term is long enough to be concerned about changing technologies

  • Also can be starting point for model addressing non-digital information


Purpose and scope 2
Purpose and Scope: 2

  • Provides set of minimal responsibilities to distinguish an OAIS from other uses of ‘archive’

  • Framework for comparing architectures and operations of existing and future archives


Purpose and scope 3
Purpose and Scope: 3

  • Basis for development of additional related standards

  • Addresses a full range of archival functions

    • Ingest, Archival Storage, Data Management, Access, Preservation Planning, Administration


Applicability
Applicability

  • Applicable to all long-term archives and those organizations and individuals dealing with information that may need long-term preservation

  • Does NOT specify an implementation


Conformance
Conformance

  • How does an archive conform?

    • It discharges the set of minimal responsibilities

    • It supports the basic information concepts that address a definition of information and types of information packages

  • How do other documents conform?

    • By using OAIS terms and concepts


Who wants to conform to oais
Who wants to conform to OAIS?

  • All organizations that need to preserve digital information for extended periods

    • To demonstrate a level of awareness of digital preservation needs

  • Other standards and documents

    • For effective communication and integration


Open archival information system oais
Open Archival Information System (OAIS)

  • Information

    • Any type of knowledge that can be exchanged

    • Data are the representation forms of information

  • Archival Information System

    • Hardware, software, and people who are responsible for the acquisition, preservation and dissemination of the information


View of an oais environment
View of an OAIS Environment

  • Producer provides the information to be preserved

  • Management sets overall OAIS policy

  • Consumer seeks and acquires preserved information of interest

OAIS

(archive)

Producer

Consumer

Management


Oais responsibilities 1
OAIS Responsibilities: 1

  • Negotiates and accepts information from information producers

  • Obtains sufficient control to ensure long-term preservation

  • Determines which communities (designated) need to be able to understand the preserved information


Oais responsibilities 2
OAIS Responsibilities: 2

  • Ensures the information to be preserved is independently understandable to the Designated Communities

  • Follows documented policies and procedures that ensure the information is preserved against all reasonable contingencies

  • Makes the preserved information available to the Designated Communities in forms understandable to those communities


Oais information definition
OAIS Information Definition

  • Information is always expressed (i.e., represented) by some type of data

  • Data interpreted using its Representation Information yields Information

Interpreted

Using its

Yields

Data

Object

Representation

Information

Information

Object


Information package definition
Information Package Definition

Preservation

Description

Information

Content

Information

  • An Information Packageis a conceptual container holding two types of information

    • Content Information

    • Preservation Description Information (PDI)


Content information
Content Information

  • The information that is the original target of preservation

  • Deciding what is the Content Information may not be obvious and may need to be negotiated with the Producer

  • The Content Data Object in the Content Information may be either a Digital Object or a Physical Object (e.g., microfilm, a physical sample)


Preservation description information pdi 1
Preservation Description Information (PDI) : 1

  • Reference Information

    • Provides one or more identifiers, or systems of identifiers, by which the Content Information may be uniquely identified

  • Provenance Information

    • Describes the source of Content Information, who has had custody of it, what is its history


Preservation description information pdi 2
Preservation Description Information (PDI) : 2

  • Context Information

    • Describes how the Content Information relates to other information outside the Information Package

  • Fixity Information

    • Protects the Content Information from undocumented alteration


Examples of pdi
Examples of PDI

  • Reference

    • Bibliographic description; Persistent Ids

  • Provenance

    • Metadata on preservation process

  • Context

    • Pointers to related collections

  • Fixity

    • Digital signatures, checksums


Information package variants
Information Package Variants

  • Submission Information Package (SIP)

    • Negotiated between Producer and OAIS

    • Sent to OAIS by a Producer

  • Archival Information Package (AIP)

    • Information Package used for preservation

    • Holds complete set of Preservation Description Information for the Content Information

  • Dissemination Information Package (DIP)

    • Includes part or all of one or more Archival Information Packages

    • Sent to a Consumer by the OAIS


Dissemination

Information

Packages

OAIS

Submission

Information

Packages

Archival

Information

Packages

External Data Flow View

Producer

queries

result

sets

orders

Consumer


Oais archival information package
OAIS Archival Information Package

Archival

Information

Package (AIP)

derived from

Packaging

Information

Package

Description

delimited by

e.g., Information

supporting customer

searches for AIP

e.g., How to find Content

information and PDI on

some medium

Preservation

Description

Information

(PDI)

Content

Information

further described by

  • e.g., • Hardcopy document

    • • Document as an electronic

    • file together with its format

    • description

    • • Scientific data set consisting

    • of image file, text file,

    • and format descriptions file

    • describing the other files

  • e.g., • How the Content Information came

    • into being, who has held it, how it

    • relates to other information, and how

    • its integrity is assured


Packaging information
Packaging Information

  • Information which, either actually or logically, binds and relates the components of the package into an identifiable entity on specific media

  • Examples of typical Packaging Information include tar files, directory structures, filenames, and tape marks


Package description
Package Description

  • Contains the data that serves as the input to documents or applications called Access Aids.

  • Access Aids can be used by a Consumer to locate, analyze, retrieve, or order information from the OAIS.


Functional entities 1
Functional Entities: 1

  • Ingest:This entity provides the services and functions to accept Submission Information Packages (SIPs) from Producers and prepare the contents for storage and management within the archive

  • Archival Storage:This entity provides the services and functions for the storage, maintenance and retrieval of Archival Information Packages

  • Data Management:This entity provides the services and functions for populating, maintaining, and accessing both descriptive information that identifies and documents archive holdings and internal archive administrative data.


Functional entities 2
Functional Entities: 2

  • Administration:This entity manages the overall operation of the archive system

  • Preservation Planning: This entity monitors the environment of the OAIS and provides recommendations to ensure that the information stored in the OAIS remain accessible to the Designated Community over the long term.

  • Access:This entity supports Consumers in determining the existence, description, location and availability of information stored in the OAIS and allows Consumers to request and receive information products


OAIS Functional Entities

Preservation Planning

P

R

O

D

U

C

E

R

C

O

N

S

U

M

E

R

Descriptive

Info.

Data

Management

Descriptive

Info.

queries

result sets

Ingest

Access

orders

SIP

DIP

AIP

AIP

Archival

Storage

Administration

MANAGEMENT

SIP = Submission Information Package

AIP = Archival Information Package

DIP = Dissemination Information Package


Submission agreement
Submission Agreement

  • Negotiated between Producer and Archive

  • Identifies the SIPs to be submitted by the Producer

  • May include mandatory requirements

  • Not further expanded in the OAIS Reference Model


Reference model summary
Reference Model Summary

  • Reference model is applicable to all digital archives, and their Producers and Consumers

  • Establishes common terms and concepts for comparing implementations, but does not specify an implementation

  • Identifies a minimum set of responsibilities for an archive to claim it is an OAIS

  • Provides detailed models of both archival functions and archival information

  • Also discusses OAIS information migration and interoperability among OAISs


Producer-Archive Interface MethodologyAbstract Standard(PAIMAS)

NOAA DSA TIM

C. Huc/CNES, D. Boucon/CNES-SILOGIC,D.M. Sawyer/NASA/GSFC, J.G. Garrett/NASA-Raytheon

RAYTHEON


Why a new standard?Needs for standardization: problems

  • The relations between archives and data Producers are rarely simple and easy:

    • nonconformity of received data

    • unclear and imprecise definition of the data to be delivered,

    • failure to meet delivery schedule,

    • late detection of errors in archived data,

    • non-management of modifications

  • ==> Can be detrimental to archived information quality and the cost of the operation.

  • Ever increasing diversity of the producers

  • Data complexity

  • Each project develops its own methodology on the basis of a process that is roughly the same from one project to another

  • ==> Work duplicated, no generality, excessively high costs, etc.


Methodology

Context

Descriptive

Info.

AIP

PAIMAS Focus

Preservation Planning

P

R

O

D

U

C

E

R

C

O

N

S

U

M

E

R

Data

Management

queries

result sets

SIP

Ingest

Access

orders

Archival

Storage

DIP

Administration

MANAGEMENT

SIP = Submission Information Package

AIP = Archival Information Package

DIP = Dissemination Information Package


MethodologyDescription

  • The archive project is broken down into 4 main phases:

    • Preliminary Phase,

    • Formal Definition Phase,

    • Transfer Phase,

    • Validation Phase.

  • Each phase has extensive action tables.

  • Specialization for a community.


Validation

Phase

Transfer

Phase

MethodologyThe phases: relationships

  • Negociate the Submission

    Develop agreement (data to

    be delivered, complementary

    elements, schedule)

  • Actual transfer of the data

    Actual transfer of the

    objects

Validate the transferred

objects

  • Identification and preliminary

    Define the information

    to be archived

  • resources estimation

Phase objective

Transferred

object files

Preliminary

Phase

Formal Definition

Phase

Validation

agreement

Preliminary

Agreement

Dictionary

Formal model

Submission Agreement

Anomalies

Data ready to archive


Methodology Preliminary phase: context

Producer

Preliminary Phase

Preliminary Agreement

Archive


Action table

Description

MethodologyPreliminary phase: sub-phases


MethodologyFormal Definition Phase: context

Preliminary Agreement

Formal Definition Phase

Dictionary

Data Model

Submission Agreement


MethodologyFormal Definition Phase: sub-phases and action table

Id Formal Definition Phase: Submission Agreement Involves

F-36 Draw up the Submission Agreement Producer and/or Archive

  • information to be transferred (e.g., SIP contents, SIP packaging, data models, Designated Community, legal and contractual aspects);

  • transfer definition (e.g. specification of the Data Submission Sessions);

  • validation definition;

  • change management (e.g. conditions for modification of the agreement, for breaking the agreement);

  • schedule (submission timetable).


MethodologyTransfer Phase

Data

Model of object files to deliver

Schedule

Transfer Phase

  • Actual transfer of the objects:

  • carry out the transfer test

  • manage the transfer

Transferred object files


MethodologyValidation Phase

Transferred object files

Data ready to archive

Validation Phase

  • Validate the transferred objects:

  • carry out the validation test

  • manage the validation

Anomalies

Validation

acknowledgement

Producer


Specialization

  • Adapt the generic standard to a particular community (which can range from an international organization to a simple archive service)

  • Steps involved to define a community standard

    • terminology,

    • data dictionary and information model,

    • standards,

    • common tools.

  • Analyze each action of the generic standard (add and delete actions as appropriate)


Conclusion

  • PAIMAS identifies:

    • the phases in the process of transferring information,

    • the objective of the phases,

    • the actions that must be carried out,

    • the expected results.

  • PAIMAS is a basis:

    • for further specialization by a particular community

    • for the identification of standards and implementation guides,

    • for identification and development of a set of software tools.


PAIMAS Status

  • PAIMAS approved as final Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems standard

    ….. http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/651x0b1.pdf

  • PAIMAS is undergoing ISO review as a final ISO standard

    • Expect approval this Fall, 2005



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