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MDMA ( ecstacy ). By Cody Wilkins. History.

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Mdma ecstacy

MDMA (ecstacy)

By Cody Wilkins


History
History

MDMA was first synthesized in 1912 intended to stop abnormal bleeding. After that MDMA was largely forgotten, researched years later in universities, and used casually by the doctors who researched it and their friends. In the 80’s MDMA became popular in night clubs and gay clubs, it later spread to the Europe and the rave culture. MDMA was classified as a schedule 1 drug in 1985.


Medical uses
Medical uses

Arguably can be used to assist in psychotherapy

Buddhist Monks use it in small doses to enhance meditation

Currently being researched for its use in treating PTSD


Recreational use
Recreational use

Raves

Night Clubs

Gay Clubs

Often used in conjunction with other psychedelic drugs


Effects on the brain
Effects on the Brain

Causes the release of large amounts of serotonin

Blocks the reuptake of serotonin by the synaptic terminal

Depletes the amount of serotonin in the brain

Reduced memory

Brain damage

Possibly toxic


How people feel when they are on ecstacy
How people feel when they are on ecstacy

Altered conscience

Sense of inner peace

Diminished aggression

Diminished fear and anxiety

Euphoria

Exceptionally loving towards others

Improved self confidence

Heightened senses

Auditory and visual distortions

Stimulated arousal/hyperactivity

Increased alertness

More energy

Decreased pain/analgesia


Acute effects
Acute Effects

Psychological

Anxiety

Paranoia

Depression

Irritability fatigue

Impaired focus


Acute effects1
Acute Effects

Physiological

Jaw clenching

Teeth grinding

Dry mouth

Loss of appetite

Dizziness

Diarrhea/constipation

Insomnia

Aching

Exhaustion


Long term effects
Long Term Effects

Depression

Memory impairment

Brain damage

Damage to blood vessels

Muscle twitching

Involuntary eye movements

Damage to heart

Organ failure


Overdose risks
Overdose Risks

Overactive reflexes

Rapid breathing or shortness of breath

Severe chest pain

Abnormal electrical activity in the heart

Circulatory shock

Heart Failure

Hemorrhage

Stroke

Hyperthermia (body too hot)

Fainting/loss of consciousness

Coma

Death

Dead Hours Later


Medical treatment
Medical Treatment

There are currently no pharmacological treatments for Ecstasy addiction but the best treatment as with most drugs is behavioral cognitive therapy.

Some Buddhist monks use MDMA to enhance their meditations.


Legal conscequences
Legal Conscequences

Possessing

  • $500(min)-$750,000(max) fine

  • 8(min) months to 15(max) years in prison

  • Reduced college opportunities

  • Reduced job opportunities

Distributing

  • $5,000(min)-$1,000,000(max) fine

  • 1(min) year to life(max) in prison

  • Reduced college opportunities

  • Reduced job opportunities


Sources
Sources

About.com. (n.d.). Ecstacy - MDMA. Retrieved from http://alcoholism.about.com/od/ecstasy/Ecstasy_MDMA.htm

Chudler, E. H. (Ed.). (2011). Ecstacy. Retrieved from Neuroscience For Kids: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/mdma.html

Info facts: MDMA (ecstasy). (n.d.). Retrieved from NIDA: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/mdma-ecstasy

Levinthal, C. F. (2012). Drugs, Behavior, & Modern Society (seventh edition). Boston: Pearson.

Wikipedia. (2012, March 27). MDMA. Retrieved 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecstasy_(drug)