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AS MOD 2 SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATION AND SPORT. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATION AND SPORT.

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As mod 2

AS MOD 2

SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE

EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATION AND SPORT


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EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATION AND SPORT

To increase participation in sport and active rec across the population there is a need to target specific groups who are below national average

Who is perceived as the dominant group in society?

White, male middle class section of society (highest participation rates)

Why?

- Most access to employment, decision-making and control of major social institutions eg law, education, media, etc

- Traditionally protects its own position eg establishing laws or membership clauses or has discriminatory practices that limit the opportunities of other groups

What is DISCRIMINATION?

To give unfair treatment especially because of prejudice

What does sport do for society?

Its good for people

It contributes to health

Increases educational attainment

It provides enjoyment

Creates a sense of pride in community and country

Helps reduce crime levels


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SOCIAL EXCLUSION

What is SOCIAL EXCLUSION?

When people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems- unemployment

- poor skills

- low incomes

- unfair discrimination

- poor housing

- high crime

- bad health

- family breakdown

Which targets groups are likely to be affected by social exclusion/discrimination?

Ethnic minority groups

Disabled

Women

Low socio-economic group

Youth 16-24


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WHERE YOU LIVE

Geographics affects opps/choices

YOUR SCHOOL

+ or – school experiences

THE GOVERNMENT

Politics/exchequer funding

YOUR FRIENDS

Peer group opinions

YOUR FAMILY

+ or - role models

FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION

YOUR AGE

YOUR GENDER

YOUR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

Income and employment

YOUR RACE/RELIGION

some ethnic groups still hold negative attitudes towards sport

STEREOTYPING

YOUR ABILITY/DISABILITY


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What is the cost (social/community) of SOCIAL EXCLUSION to the individual, taxpayer and economy?


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What are the general barriers to participation in sport (Attitude, Access, Programme)?


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SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS

- Individuals from lower socio-economic groups have poorer health/mortality rates, therefore the health benefits of participation are important

  • This group is likely to suffer from social exclusion as they have less- power

    • - opportunities

    • - decision-making

    • - disposable income

- Values are transferred through generations and can continue to alienate people who’s values are different to the dominant culture

What factors might make this group difficult to MOBILISE (motivate)?

Feelings of inadequacy

Low self-esteem

Isolation from major social institutions

What is SOCIAL MOBILITY?

Movement of individuals up or down the social class structure


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ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS

DEFINING ETHNICITY

What are Ethnic Groups?

People who have racial, religious, linguistic and/or certain other traits in common

What Ethnic groups can people be classified into?

White

Black African

Black Caribbean

Black other

Indian

Pakistani

Bangladeshi

Chinese

None of these

The gap between men’s/women’s part is greater amongst ethnic minority groups than it is in the population as a whole

REASONS FOR LOW PARTICIPATION RATES

What reasons are there for low participation rates?

Work/study demands

Home/family responsibilities

Lack of money

Laziness

Negative experiences in sport


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Weight training amongst Black males

Running/jogging amongst Black other males/Black Africans

Badminton by Chinese men

Cricket by Pakistani, Black other and Indian

Basketball amongst Black Caribbean/Black Africans

What activities are popular with ethnic minority groups?

- There’s variation in levels of participation between ethnic groups, between men and women and between sports

Give examples of racism in sport?

STACKINGdisproportionate concentration of ethnic minorities in certain positions in a sports team based on stereotype that they are more valued for their physical skills than decision-making eg black fly halves

CENTRALITYrestricts ethnic minority groups from more central positions requiring decision-making and social interaction

LABELLINGagents of social control (eg teachers) attach stereotypes to particular groups of people eg having lower educational expectations of black children compared to white, or girls compared to boys on the sports field

CHANNELLINGteachers/coaches channel children from ethnic minority groups into certain sports that they feel they are most likely to succeed in

ATTITUDES/PREJUDICE

RACIST ATTACKS


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SOLUTIONS TO THE LOWER PARTICIPATION MINORITY RATES FROM ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS

What solutions are there to lower participation rates from Ethnic Minority Groups?

Sport policies that are sensitive/respectful of other cultures eg single sex swimming for Muslim women

Use of policy planning, race relations advisors and customer care

Info should be available about sport provision in a local area

Clubs should be supported but integration not enforced

People from ethnic minorities in local communities trained as sport leaders and SDO’s

Greater media coverage raising awareness of ethnic minority sports and role models

Campaigns to eliminate racism

Can you name a high profile Anti-Racism campaign?

“Kick it Out” in football, from the “Let’s Kick Racism out of Football” campaign, est in 1993 by Commission for Racial Equality and PFA

It was supported/funded by PFA, FA Premier League and the FA


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FEMALE PARTICIPATION

What sports have high female participation?

  • Swimming

  • keep fit

  • yoga

What are the reasons for lower female participation rates in active recreation?

Domestic role

Social stereotypingsociety less positive about female sport participation compared to men. Stereotype that females should not be seen to be too competitive, assertive, achievement orientated

Sport traditionally the preserve of malesit was est/controlled by men, actively discouraging women

Less media coverage

Traditionally less money/powerwomen generally earn less money, occupy fewer positions of power (esp in sporting institutions)

SexismOvert eg legislation/club membership

Covert eg society’s more negative attitudes towards female participation

Evidence of inequality in sporting opportunitiesunequal provision of facilities, less variety of activities eg traditionally football, boxing, rugby.

Fewer female coaches/administrators


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SOLUTIONS TO LOW PARTICIPATION RATES

What are the solutions to low participation rates?

Equal opportunitiesNGBs must create/deliver equal opportunity policies following Sex Discrimination Act 1975

WSF est to raise awareness of inequalities in female sporting provision

More facilities for womenWomen only sessions, effective child-care facilities

Better links between school and clubsHelp lower the “post school gap”

Media coverage

Health related activitiesWomen should be aware of all possibilities in their area and the health benefits of sport participation should be promoted

What does the term “sex” mean?

The biological aspect of a person, male or female

What does the term “gender” mean?

Roles that different societies/cultures attribute as appropriate behaviour for that sex

What gender roles do we assign to women in this country?

A dainty/delicate female, physically slim/emotionally vulnerable

What impact does this have on modern day sport?

Sports like tennis/gymnastics receive more social acceptance than sports requiring “masculine” orientated features


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  • Historically sport was always seen as a male preserve as they developed/controlled sports whilst women have had to fight hard to achieve similar opportunities

  • Limitations/restrictions were based on medical grounds and idealistic image of femininity

  • This led to many myths/stereotypes regarding medical problems women would encounter if they participated in sport too strenuously

How has female sports participation increased in the 20th C?

Greater independence via more disposable income

Transport

Availability of more sports

Clubs and competitions

Media coverage

Women in positions of responsibility in sport orgs

SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT 1975

A female should be treated in the same way as a male in similar circumstances


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  • THE WOMEN’S SPORT FOUNDATION

  • Set up 1984 by women working in sport concerned about lack of sport/rec opportunities for women/girls and low representation of women in sports coaching/management/media

  • Its leading org dedicated to improving/promoting opportunities for women/girls in sport/physical activity

  • Committed to improving/increasing/promoting opportunities for women/girls (in all roles at all levels) in sport/fitness/physical activity

What do you think is the biggest factor for female participation in sports?

The growing emphasis placed on health/fitness and the toned/slim stereotypical female form

What is the no.1 sport for women and girls?

Football

  • There are 61,000 women competing in clubs affiliated to the FA

  • Increase in number of girl’s teams developing in schools

What is the major problem holding back the number of girls taking part?

Lack of career prospects


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DISABILITY AND PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVE RECREATION AND SPORT

What do you refer to as disability?

People with a PHYSICAL, SENSORY or MENTAL impairment

What are the most popular sports for the young disabled?

Horse riding and swimming

What is it about these sports?

These are sports that tend to organise events specifically of people with disabilities

Participation in other sports alongside non-disabled is low

Have sports been modified for the disabled?

Modified (volleyball or wheelchair basketball)

Specifically designed (goalball for the blind)

What is Goalball?


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