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AS MOD 2 SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE THE CHANGING NATURE OF BRITISH SOCIETY. The Changing Nature of British Society. Introduction:. Sport is an INTEGRAL part of society.

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AS MOD 2

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As mod 2

AS MOD 2

SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE

THE CHANGING NATURE OF BRITISH SOCIETY


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The Changing Nature of British Society

Introduction:

Sport is an INTEGRAL part of society

  • British Society has undergone 3 phases

  • Pre-industrial society

  • Industrialisation

  • Post Industrial/Advanced Technological Society

Developments in sport tend to MIRROR developments in society

For example

As society became CIVILISED so did sporting recreations of the time as reflected in the development of RULES, SKILLS and ETIQUETTE for many games


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What does Industrialisation mean?

Process in 18th and 19th C when Britain moved from predominantly AGRICULTURAL base to an ECONOMY dominated by MANUFACTURING

What does the CIVILISING OF SOCIETY mean?

The development of HUMAN MANNERS, e.g the practicing of SELF RESTRAINT in social situations. CODES of BEHAVIOUR and ETIQUETTE became the norm. Sports became LESS VIOLENT in nature

The birth of MODERN SPORT began in BRITAIN, the 1st INDUSTRIALISED country in the WORLD

Modern sport developed in an atmosphere where social and economic conditions occurred, these were:

1.) Industrialisation

2.) Effective communications

3.) URBANISATION (mass of population changes lifestyle from living in villages/rural areas

to living in towns/cities)

4.) Affluent society

5.) Population with sufficient leisure time and surplus disposable income


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PRE-INDUSTRIAL BRITAIN (pre 1750)

- Majority of population lived in RURAL areas working on the land

- UPPER CLASSES

Were wealthy landowners holding political power

- WORKING CLASSES

Had little free time and their lives were harsh

Strong sense of community

Lack of free time = recreations only took place occasionally and mostly on

RELIGIOUS HOLIDAYS and FESTIVALS

As participation was not regular, many activities DID NOT develop STRUCTURALLY but retained their TRADITIONAL nature over 100’s of years = POPULAR RECREATION (eg MOB FOOTBALL)

Peasants were UNEDUCATED (compulsory schooling >1870), whereas Upper Classes were educated in elite PUBLIC SCHOOLS


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In groups

What were the characteristics of POPULAR RECREATION (eg MOB FOOTBALL)?

  • occasional due to free time

- only a few simple unwritten rules

- activity being PARTICIPATION-BASED rather than SPECTATOR-BASED

- physical force rather than skill

- many injuries/violent

- lower class involvement

- LOCAL rather than REGIONAL or NATIONAL events

- limited STRUCTURE , EQUIPMENT and FACILITIES


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THE VICTORIAN ERA (1839 – 1901)

When Queen Victoria was on the throne

This era saw major transition in society

Immense contrasts between RICH and POOR

Nation was PROSPEROUS and STABLE

This era coincided with the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Nation underwent URBANISATION

The Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1850):

Cramped living and working conditions in towns

Move from AGRICULTURE and COTTAGE (craft workshops) industries to FACTORIES

Britain seen as WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD


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Industrial Revolution c’ntd

Britain was 1st European Country to undergo Industrial Revolution

By middle of 19th C, Britain was WORLD’S LEADING INDUSTRIAL POWER

By 1901: only 10% of its labour force worked in agriculture

¾ of population lived in TOWNS/CITIES

population nearly TREBLED

In pairs: How would this have affected the working week, recreation, environment?

- Hours being worked (12 hrs/day)

- Women and children working (coal industries)

- Working week (6 days)

- Expectations to attend church on Sun

- Little time for rest and leisure (no MOB FOOTBALL)

- Restricted recreational opportunities/facilities

- Urban squalor (poor health)

- Spoiled landscapes


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Industrial Revolution c’ntd

Gradually improvements were made:

- Trade Unions helped

- ½ day Saturdays

- Early closing for shop workers on Wed

- Bank Holiday’s (provision of NATIONALLY recognised LEISURE TIME)

- Wages increased giving working classes DISPOSABLE income

In pairs: How were these new improvements positive for Sport and Recreation?

- participation in more activities

- Spectator sports and facilities began to develop

- Increased disposable income meant more money to spend on leisure

- On Bank Holidays, people began taking excursions to the country/seaside by train/cycling/foot

- Town and City parks were used for recreational purposes


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