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Naming Inorganic Compounds. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Memorize:. 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements 3) Latin names of elements 4) names of common cations and anions 5) common names of selected compounds. Memorize:. 1) classification of elements

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Naming inorganic compounds

Naming Inorganic Compounds

Vladimíra Kvasnicová


Memorize
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

3) Latin names of elements

4) names of common cations and anions

5) common names of selected compounds


Memorize1
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

see Periodic table of Elements


The figure is found at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/periodic_table.gif (September 2007)


The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)


Memorize2
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

see Periodic table

  • alkali metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr (IA)

  • alkali earth metals: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba (IIA)

  • halogens: F, Cl, Br, I (VIIA)

  • inert gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn (VIIIA)


Memorize3
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

see Periodic table

  • nonmetals: H (IA)

    B (IIIA)

    C, Si (IVA)

    N, P, As (VA)

    O, S, Se (VIA)

    halogens (VIIA)

central atoms of acids


Memorize4
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

see Periodic table

  • transition metals: Cu, Ag, Au (IB)

    Zn, Cd, Hg (IIB)

    Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Mo, Pt

  • other metals: Al, Sn, Sb, Pb, Bi


Memorize5
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

  • symbols are derived from Latin names of elements

    H = Hydrogenium = hydrogen

    Na = Natrium = sodium

    Ag = Argentum = silver

    (Ar = Argon)


Memorize6
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

3) Latin names of elements

  • symbols of elements

  • used in naming of some compounds

  • used in medicine



Memorize7
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

3) Latin names of elements

4) names of common cations and anions

  • naming inorganic compounds is based on the names


Names of cations
Names of CATIONS

  • one oxidation state

    name of the cation = name of the element

    • H, Li, Na, K, Ag +I

    • Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn +II

    • B, Al +III

      see position of the elements in the Periodic table


The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)


Names of cations1
Names of CATIONS

  • two oxidation states

    root of Latin name + two suffixes:

    • lower oxidation state: -ous

    • higher oxidation state: -ic

  • Cu, Hg both found in oxidat. states:+I/+II

  • Fe, Co +II/+III

  • Sn, Pb +II/+IV


Names of anions
Names of ANIONS

  • one oxidation state

    a) root of Latin name + suffix: -ide

    • halogen → halide F, Cl, Br, I -I

    • hydrogen → hydride H -I

    • oxygen → oxide O -II

    • sulfur → sulfide S -II

    • hydroxide OH -1

    • cyanide CN -1


Names of anions1
Names of ANIONS

  • one oxidation state

    b) root of Latin name + suffix: -ate

    • carbonate CO3-2CIV

    • silicate SiO3-2SiIV

    • chromate CrO4-2CrVI

    • borate BO4-3BIII

      oxidation state of oxygen in anions is always –II (exception: in peroxides = -I)


Names of anions2
Names of ANIONS

  • two oxidation states

    root of Latin name + two suffixes:

    • lower oxidative state: -ite

    • higher oxidative state: -ate

  • nitrite / nitrate NO2-/NO3-N+III/+V

  • phosphite/phosphate PO3-3/PO4-3 P+III/+V

  • sulfite / sulfate SO3-2/SO4-2S+IV/+VI

  • selenite/selenate SeO3-2/SeO4-2Se+IV/+VI


Names of anions3
Names of ANIONS

  • more oxidative states

    root of Latin name + prefixes and suffixes:

    • the lovest oxidative state: hypo- -ite

    • lower oxidative state: -ite

    • higher oxidative state: -ate

    • the highest oxidative state: hyper- -ate

  • Cl, Br, I, Mn

    (hypochlorite, chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate)


Name of a compound
Name of a compound

= name of cation + name of anion

NaCl

= sodium chloride

KOH

= potassium hydroxide


Memorize8
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

3) Latin names of elements

4) names of common cations and anions

5) common names of selected compounds

= trivial names


Compounds called by their common names
Compounds called by their common names

  • H2O water H3O+ hydronium

  • NH3 ammonia NH4+ ammonium

  • NO nitric oxide

  • NaCl salt

  • HCO3- bicarbonate


Types of compounds
Types of compounds

  • ionic compounds are composed of:

    cation and anion

  • cation is positively charged

  • anion is negatively charged

  • naming the compounds:cation name + anion name

molecule: its total charge is ZERO


Types of compounds1
Types of compounds

  • OXIDES

  • „cation oxide“

    • anion: O-II

    • cation:

      • nonmetal: Greek prefixes

      • metal: -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)

        (OS) = oxidation state in the parentheses


The figure is found at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/periodic_table.gif (September 2007)


Types of compounds2
Types of compounds

  • OXIDES

    • CO carbon monoxide

    • CO2 carbon dioxide

    • CaO calcium oxide

    • Al2O3 aluminium oxide

    • PbO lead(II) oxideor plumbous oxide

    • PbO2 lead(IV) oxideor plumbic oxide


Types of compounds3
Types of compounds

  • PEROXIDES

  • „cation peroxide“

    • anion: O2-I (-O-O-)

    • cation: element name

      H2O2 hydrogen peroxide

      BaO2 barium peroxide


Types of compounds4
Types of compounds

  • HYDROXIDES

  • „cation hydroxide“

    • anion: OH-1

    • cation:

      • metal: -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)

        (OS) = oxidation state in the parentheses


Types of compounds5
Types of compounds

  • HYDROXIDES

    • KOH potassium hydroxide

    • Al(OH)3 aluminium hydroxide

    • Fe(OH)2 iron(II) hydroxide or ferrous hydroxide

    • Fe(OH)3 iron(III) hydroxideor ferric hydroxide


Types of compounds6
Types of compounds

ACIDS

  • cation = H+

  • anion: monoatomic or polyatomic

    • hydro- ......... –ic acid → -id

    • –ic acid → –ate

    • –ous acid → -ite

  • oxygen free acids:HnX

  • oxo acids:HnXOn

    n = 1, 2, 3, ...

    X = mostly nonmetal


  • Types of compounds7
    Types of compounds

    • OXYGEN FREE ACIDS

    • „hydro.....-ic acid“

      • anion: F-I , Cl-I , Br-I , l-I, S-II, CN-1

      • cation: H+

        HF = hydrofluoric acid

        HCN = hydrocyanic acid


    Types of compounds8
    Types of compounds

    • salts of OXYGEN FREE ACIDS

    • „cation.....-ide“ (= cation anion)

      • anion: F-I , Cl-I , Br-I , l-I, S-II, CN-1

      • cation: monoatomic or polyatomic

        NaCl = sodium chloride

        NH4Cl = ammonium chloride


    Types of compounds9
    Types of compounds

    • OXO ACIDS

    • the name is based on the name of its anion:

      • –ous acid → -ite

      • –ic acid → -ate

        H2SO3 sulfurousacid→ anion: SO32- = sulfite

        H2SO4 sulfuricacid→ anion: SO42- = sulfate

        H2CO3 carbonicacid→ anion: CO32- = carbonate

    • anion: polyatomic (central atom = nonmetal)

    • cation: H+


    Acid forming elements
    Acid forming elements

    BIII, CIV, SiIV(-ic -ate)

    NIII/V, PIII/V, AsIII/V, SbIII/V, SIV/VI, SeIV/VI(-ous -ite,-ic -ate)

    MnIV/VI/VII (-ite, -ate, per-...-ate)

    Cl, Br, II/III/V/VII(hypo-...-ite, -ite, -ate, per-...-ate)


    Types of compounds10
    Types of compounds

    • salts of OXO ACIDS

    • „cation anion“

      • cation: monoatomic or polyatomic

        -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)

      • anion: polyatomic

        FeSO4 = ferroussulfate or iron(II)sulfate

        Fe2(SO4)3 = ferricsulfate or iron(III)sulfate


    Types of compounds11
    Types of compounds

    • double salts of ACIDS

    • „cation1 cation2 anion“or

    • „cation anion1 anion2“

      • cation: monoatomic or polyatomic

        -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)

      • anion: monoatomic or polyatomic

    • increasing oxidative state, alphabetical order


    Types of compounds12
    Types of compounds

    • double salts of ACIDS

    • „cation1 cation2 anion“

      KMgF3 potassium magnesium fluoride

      KLiSO4 potassium lithium sulfate

      Total charge of molecule is ZERO


    Types of compounds13
    Types of compounds

    • double salts of ACIDS

    • „cation anion1 anion2“

      CaCl(ClO) calcium chloride hypochlorite

      Cu3(CO3)2F2 copper(II) carbonate fluoride

      Total charge of molecule is ZERO


    Types of compounds14
    Types of compounds

    • acid salts of ACIDS

    • „cation hydrogen anion“

      KH2PO4 potassium dihydrogen phosphate

      K2HPO4 (di)potassium hydrogen phosphate

      K3PO4 (tri)potassium phosphate (not acidic)

      NH4HCO3 ammonium hydrogen carbonate

      Ca(HS)2 calcium hydrogen sulfide


    Types of compounds15
    Types of compounds

    • basic salts of ACIDS

    • „cation hydroxy anion“

      Mg(OH)Cl magnesium hydroxychloride

      Sb(OH)2(NO3) antimony(III) dihydroxynitrate

      Total charge of molecule is ZERO


    Types of compounds16
    Types of compounds

    • HYDRATES OF SALTS

    • „cation anion multiple hydrate“

      MgCl2 . 6H2O magnesium chloride hexahydrate

      CaHPO4 . 2H2O calcium hydrogen phosphate

      dihydrate


    Types of compounds17
    Types of compounds

    • THIOACIDS AND THIOSALTS

    • „thio.... acid“

      H2S2O3 thiosulfuric acid (H2SO4 = sulfuric acid)

      HSCN thiocyanic acid (HOCN = cyanic acid)

    • „cation thio....anion“

      K2S2O3 potassium thiosulfate

      KSCN potassium thiocyanate


    Types of compounds18
    Types of compounds

    • POLYACIDS AND SALTS

    • „multiple.... acid“

      H2B4O7tetraboric acid

      H2Cr2O7dichromic acid

    • „cation multiple....anion“

      Na2B4O7 sodium tetraborate

      K2Cr2O7 potassium dichromate


    Keep in mind the rules
    Keep in mind the rules:

    • names of compounds are derived from the names of cations, anions and polyatomic ions: cation anion (NaCl = sodium chloride)

    • all binary compounds end in –ideCaO, H2O2, NaCl, HF, ZnS

    • binary compounds composed of two nonmetals: Greek prefixesSO2, N2O5, CO


    Keep in mind the rules1
    Keep in mind the rules:

    • binary compounds composed of metal ion with fixed or variable oxidation numbers and nonmetal ion: no Greek prefixes

      a) -ous / -ic suffix system

      b) Stock system (prefered)

      CuCl2, CuCl, Fe2O3, FeO


    Keep in mind the rules2
    Keep in mind the rules:

    • ternary compounds:

      • hydrogen cation H+ (= acid)

        or metal cation (= salt or hydroxide)

        (fixed or variable oxidation number)

      • and a polyatomic anion (e.g. SO42- or OH1-)

        H2SO4 Na2SO4 NaOH

        Total charge of a molecule = 0


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