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Naming Inorganic Compounds. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Memorize:. 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements 3) Latin names of elements 4) names of common cations and anions 5) common names of selected compounds. Memorize:. 1) classification of elements

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naming inorganic compounds

Naming Inorganic Compounds

Vladimíra Kvasnicová

memorize
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

3) Latin names of elements

4) names of common cations and anions

5) common names of selected compounds

memorize1
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

see Periodic table of Elements

slide4

The figure is found at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/periodic_table.gif (September 2007)

slide5

The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)

memorize2
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

see Periodic table

  • alkali metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr (IA)
  • alkali earth metals: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba (IIA)
  • halogens: F, Cl, Br, I (VIIA)
  • inert gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn (VIIIA)
memorize3
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

see Periodic table

  • nonmetals: H (IA)

B (IIIA)

C, Si (IVA)

N, P, As (VA)

O, S, Se (VIA)

halogens (VIIA)

central atoms of acids

memorize4
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

see Periodic table

  • transition metals: Cu, Ag, Au (IB)

Zn, Cd, Hg (IIB)

Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Mo, Pt

  • other metals: Al, Sn, Sb, Pb, Bi
memorize5
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

  • symbols are derived from Latin names of elements

H = Hydrogenium = hydrogen

Na = Natrium = sodium

Ag = Argentum = silver

(Ar = Argon)

memorize6
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

3) Latin names of elements

  • symbols of elements
  • used in naming of some compounds
  • used in medicine
memorize7
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

3) Latin names of elements

4) names of common cations and anions

  • naming inorganic compounds is based on the names
names of cations
Names of CATIONS
  • one oxidation state

name of the cation = name of the element

    • H, Li, Na, K, Ag +I
    • Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn +II
    • B, Al +III

see position of the elements in the Periodic table

slide16

The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)

names of cations1
Names of CATIONS
  • two oxidation states

root of Latin name + two suffixes:

      • lower oxidation state: -ous
      • higher oxidation state: -ic
    • Cu, Hg both found in oxidat. states:+I/+II
    • Fe, Co +II/+III
    • Sn, Pb +II/+IV
names of anions
Names of ANIONS
  • one oxidation state

a) root of Latin name + suffix: -ide

    • halogen → halide F, Cl, Br, I -I
    • hydrogen → hydride H -I
    • oxygen → oxide O -II
    • sulfur → sulfide S -II
    • hydroxide OH -1
    • cyanide CN -1
names of anions1
Names of ANIONS
  • one oxidation state

b) root of Latin name + suffix: -ate

    • carbonate CO3-2CIV
    • silicate SiO3-2SiIV
    • chromate CrO4-2CrVI
    • borate BO4-3BIII

oxidation state of oxygen in anions is always –II (exception: in peroxides = -I)

names of anions2
Names of ANIONS
  • two oxidation states

root of Latin name + two suffixes:

      • lower oxidative state: -ite
      • higher oxidative state: -ate
    • nitrite / nitrate NO2-/NO3-N+III/+V
    • phosphite/phosphate PO3-3/PO4-3 P+III/+V
    • sulfite / sulfate SO3-2/SO4-2S+IV/+VI
    • selenite/selenate SeO3-2/SeO4-2Se+IV/+VI
names of anions3
Names of ANIONS
  • more oxidative states

root of Latin name + prefixes and suffixes:

      • the lovest oxidative state: hypo- -ite
      • lower oxidative state: -ite
      • higher oxidative state: -ate
      • the highest oxidative state: hyper- -ate
    • Cl, Br, I, Mn

(hypochlorite, chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate)

name of a compound
Name of a compound

= name of cation + name of anion

NaCl

= sodium chloride

KOH

= potassium hydroxide

memorize8
Memorize:

1)classification of elements

2) symbols and English names of elements

3) Latin names of elements

4) names of common cations and anions

5) common names of selected compounds

= trivial names

compounds called by their common names
Compounds called by their common names
  • H2O water H3O+ hydronium
  • NH3 ammonia NH4+ ammonium
  • NO nitric oxide
  • NaCl salt
  • HCO3- bicarbonate
types of compounds
Types of compounds
  • ionic compounds are composed of:

cation and anion

  • cation is positively charged
  • anion is negatively charged
  • naming the compounds:cation name + anion name

molecule: its total charge is ZERO

types of compounds1
Types of compounds
  • OXIDES
  • „cation oxide“
    • anion: O-II
    • cation:
      • nonmetal: Greek prefixes
      • metal: -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)

(OS) = oxidation state in the parentheses

slide27

The figure is found at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/periodic_table.gif (September 2007)

types of compounds2
Types of compounds
  • OXIDES
    • CO carbon monoxide
    • CO2 carbon dioxide
    • CaO calcium oxide
    • Al2O3 aluminium oxide
    • PbO lead(II) oxideor plumbous oxide
    • PbO2 lead(IV) oxideor plumbic oxide
types of compounds3
Types of compounds
  • PEROXIDES
  • „cation peroxide“
    • anion: O2-I (-O-O-)
    • cation: element name

H2O2 hydrogen peroxide

BaO2 barium peroxide

types of compounds4
Types of compounds
  • HYDROXIDES
  • „cation hydroxide“
    • anion: OH-1
    • cation:
      • metal: -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)

(OS) = oxidation state in the parentheses

types of compounds5
Types of compounds
  • HYDROXIDES
    • KOH potassium hydroxide
    • Al(OH)3 aluminium hydroxide
    • Fe(OH)2 iron(II) hydroxide or ferrous hydroxide
    • Fe(OH)3 iron(III) hydroxideor ferric hydroxide
types of compounds6
Types of compounds

ACIDS

  • cation = H+
  • anion: monoatomic or polyatomic
      • hydro- ......... –ic acid → -id
      • –ic acid → –ate
      • –ous acid → -ite
  • oxygen free acids:HnX
  • oxo acids:HnXOn

n = 1, 2, 3, ...

X = mostly nonmetal

types of compounds7
Types of compounds
  • OXYGEN FREE ACIDS
  • „hydro.....-ic acid“
    • anion: F-I , Cl-I , Br-I , l-I, S-II, CN-1
    • cation: H+

HF = hydrofluoric acid

HCN = hydrocyanic acid

types of compounds8
Types of compounds
  • salts of OXYGEN FREE ACIDS
  • „cation.....-ide“ (= cation anion)
    • anion: F-I , Cl-I , Br-I , l-I, S-II, CN-1
    • cation: monoatomic or polyatomic

NaCl = sodium chloride

NH4Cl = ammonium chloride

types of compounds9
Types of compounds
  • OXO ACIDS
  • the name is based on the name of its anion:
    • –ous acid → -ite
    • –ic acid → -ate

H2SO3 sulfurousacid→ anion: SO32- = sulfite

H2SO4 sulfuricacid→ anion: SO42- = sulfate

H2CO3 carbonicacid→ anion: CO32- = carbonate

  • anion: polyatomic (central atom = nonmetal)
  • cation: H+
acid forming elements
Acid forming elements

BIII, CIV, SiIV(-ic -ate)

NIII/V, PIII/V, AsIII/V, SbIII/V, SIV/VI, SeIV/VI(-ous -ite,-ic -ate)

MnIV/VI/VII (-ite, -ate, per-...-ate)

Cl, Br, II/III/V/VII(hypo-...-ite, -ite, -ate, per-...-ate)

types of compounds10
Types of compounds
  • salts of OXO ACIDS
  • „cation anion“
    • cation: monoatomic or polyatomic

-ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)

    • anion: polyatomic

FeSO4 = ferroussulfate or iron(II)sulfate

Fe2(SO4)3 = ferricsulfate or iron(III)sulfate

types of compounds11
Types of compounds
  • double salts of ACIDS
  • „cation1 cation2 anion“or
  • „cation anion1 anion2“
    • cation: monoatomic or polyatomic

-ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)

    • anion: monoatomic or polyatomic
  • increasing oxidative state, alphabetical order
types of compounds12
Types of compounds
  • double salts of ACIDS
  • „cation1 cation2 anion“

KMgF3 potassium magnesium fluoride

KLiSO4 potassium lithium sulfate

Total charge of molecule is ZERO

types of compounds13
Types of compounds
  • double salts of ACIDS
  • „cation anion1 anion2“

CaCl(ClO) calcium chloride hypochlorite

Cu3(CO3)2F2 copper(II) carbonate fluoride

Total charge of molecule is ZERO

types of compounds14
Types of compounds
  • acid salts of ACIDS
  • „cation hydrogen anion“

KH2PO4 potassium dihydrogen phosphate

K2HPO4 (di)potassium hydrogen phosphate

K3PO4 (tri)potassium phosphate (not acidic)

NH4HCO3 ammonium hydrogen carbonate

Ca(HS)2 calcium hydrogen sulfide

types of compounds15
Types of compounds
  • basic salts of ACIDS
  • „cation hydroxy anion“

Mg(OH)Cl magnesium hydroxychloride

Sb(OH)2(NO3) antimony(III) dihydroxynitrate

Total charge of molecule is ZERO

types of compounds16
Types of compounds
  • HYDRATES OF SALTS
  • „cation anion multiple hydrate“

MgCl2 . 6H2O magnesium chloride hexahydrate

CaHPO4 . 2H2O calcium hydrogen phosphate

dihydrate

types of compounds17
Types of compounds
  • THIOACIDS AND THIOSALTS
  • „thio.... acid“

H2S2O3 thiosulfuric acid (H2SO4 = sulfuric acid)

HSCN thiocyanic acid (HOCN = cyanic acid)

  • „cation thio....anion“

K2S2O3 potassium thiosulfate

KSCN potassium thiocyanate

types of compounds18
Types of compounds
  • POLYACIDS AND SALTS
  • „multiple.... acid“

H2B4O7tetraboric acid

H2Cr2O7dichromic acid

  • „cation multiple....anion“

Na2B4O7 sodium tetraborate

K2Cr2O7 potassium dichromate

keep in mind the rules
Keep in mind the rules:
  • names of compounds are derived from the names of cations, anions and polyatomic ions: cation anion (NaCl = sodium chloride)
  • all binary compounds end in –ideCaO, H2O2, NaCl, HF, ZnS
  • binary compounds composed of two nonmetals: Greek prefixesSO2, N2O5, CO
keep in mind the rules1
Keep in mind the rules:
  • binary compounds composed of metal ion with fixed or variable oxidation numbers and nonmetal ion: no Greek prefixes

a) -ous / -ic suffix system

b) Stock system (prefered)

CuCl2, CuCl, Fe2O3, FeO

keep in mind the rules2
Keep in mind the rules:
  • ternary compounds:
    • hydrogen cation H+ (= acid)

or metal cation (= salt or hydroxide)

(fixed or variable oxidation number)

    • and a polyatomic anion (e.g. SO42- or OH1-)

H2SO4 Na2SO4 NaOH

Total charge of a molecule = 0

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