Durham County  System of Care and Durham Public Schools Positive Behavior Support

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Durham County System of Care. Helping Families Help their Children Succeed in Home, School and Community. What is a ?System of Care"?. A community-based System of Care is a comprehensive spectrum of services and supports organized into a coordinated network to meet the diverse and changing strengths and needs of children and youth with complex behavioral, educational, social and/or safety needs, and their families..

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Durham County System of Care and Durham Public Schools Positive Behavior Support

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1. Durham County System of Care and Durham Public Schools Positive Behavior Support Integrating Positive Behavior Support and System of Care: Making a Difference for Students in Durham County

2. Durham County System of Care Helping Families Help their Children Succeed in Home, School and Community

3. What is a “System of Care”? A community-based System of Care is a comprehensive spectrum of services and supports organized into a coordinated network to meet the diverse and changing strengths and needs of children and youth with complex behavioral, educational, social and/or safety needs, and their families.

4. What is the Purpose? The purpose of a system of care is to make comprehensive, flexible and effective support available for children, youth and families throughout the community and through this assistance make the community a better place to live (Franz, 1999). Notice that System of Care in not just about mental health. It is about all of these agencies working together. Notice that System of Care in not just about mental health. It is about all of these agencies working together.

5. Principles of System of Care: Interagency Collaboration Individualized Strengths-Based Care Cultural Competence Child and Family Involvement Community-Based Services Accountability Interagency Collaboration: Services are planned in collaboration with all the child-serving systems involved in the child’s life. Representatives from all these systems and the family collaborate to define the goals for the child, develop a service plan, develop the necessary resources to implement the plan, provide appropriate support to the child and family, and evaluate progress. Individualized, Strengths Based Care: Services are planned to meet the individual needs of the child, rather than to fit the child into an existing service. Services consider the child’s family and community contexts, are developmentally appropriate and child-specific, and build on the strengths of the child and family to meet the mental health, social and physical needs of the child. Culturally competent: Culture determines our worldview and provides a general design for living and patterns for interpreting reality that are reflected in our behavior. Therefore, services that are culturally competent are provided by individuals who have the skills to recognize and respect the behavior, ideas, attitudes, values, beliefs, customs, language, rituals, ceremonies and practices characteristic of a particular group of people. Child and Family Involvment: The family is the primary support system for the child and it is important to help empower the family to advocate for themselves. The family participates as a full partner in all stages of the decision-making and service planning process including implementation, monitoring and evaluation. A family may include biological, adoptive and foster parents, siblings, grandparents, other relatives, and other adults who are committed to the child. The development of policy at state and local levels includes family representation. Community-based: Whenever possible, services are delivered in the child’s home community, drawing on formal and informal resources to promote the child’s successful participation in the community. Community resources include not only human service professionals and provider agencies, but also social, religious, cultural organizations and other natural community support networks. Accountability:Interagency Collaboration: Services are planned in collaboration with all the child-serving systems involved in the child’s life. Representatives from all these systems and the family collaborate to define the goals for the child, develop a service plan, develop the necessary resources to implement the plan, provide appropriate support to the child and family, and evaluate progress. Individualized, Strengths Based Care: Services are planned to meet the individual needs of the child, rather than to fit the child into an existing service. Services consider the child’s family and community contexts, are developmentally appropriate and child-specific, and build on the strengths of the child and family to meet the mental health, social and physical needs of the child. Culturally competent: Culture determines our worldview and provides a general design for living and patterns for interpreting reality that are reflected in our behavior. Therefore, services that are culturally competent are provided by individuals who have the skills to recognize and respect the behavior, ideas, attitudes, values, beliefs, customs, language, rituals, ceremonies and practices characteristic of a particular group of people. Child and Family Involvment: The family is the primary support system for the child and it is important to help empower the family to advocate for themselves. The family participates as a full partner in all stages of the decision-making and service planning process including implementation, monitoring and evaluation. A family may include biological, adoptive and foster parents, siblings, grandparents, other relatives, and other adults who are committed to the child. The development of policy at state and local levels includes family representation. Community-based: Whenever possible, services are delivered in the child’s home community, drawing on formal and informal resources to promote the child’s successful participation in the community. Community resources include not only human service professionals and provider agencies, but also social, religious, cultural organizations and other natural community support networks. Accountability:

6. Outcomes Success, Safety and Permanency in Home, School and Community!

7. Why should we use a System of Care?

11. System of Care as Best Practice According to the Center for Mental Health Services, SAMHSA, Federal DHHS*: “ The System of Care offers the best possible programmatic, fiscal, and organizational context for implementing and sustaining evidenced-based interventions . . .” (*CMHS, 2004, Children’s Service Initiative) System of Care approach has been nationally recognized in numerous reports, such as the Presidents New Freedom Commission Report, The Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health, as the best practice model for service organization and delivery of services for children with complex emotional, safety, educational and/or behavioral problems and their families. System of Care approach has been nationally recognized in numerous reports, such as the Presidents New Freedom Commission Report, The Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health, as the best practice model for service organization and delivery of services for children with complex emotional, safety, educational and/or behavioral problems and their families.

12. System of Care in Durham

13. History in Durham In August 2002, key leaders in Durham County’s human service delivery system, including the Directors of Public Health, Department of Social Services, The Durham Center, Department of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Durham Public Schools, as well as the Chair of the County Commissioners, the Assistant County Manager and a District Court Judge, made a commitment to work together to develop a community-wide SOC. This group signed a Memorandum of Agreement that serves as a guide to the implementation of SOC in Durham County for all children and families. This led to the creation of a System of Care Infrastructure

14. Key Elements of Durham’s SOC A Broad and Flexible Array of Services and Supports Child and Family Teams through Wraparound Approaches Collaborative Management, Support and Accountability

15. How does SOC Work in Durham? All participating agencies, families and the community must work together in teams in order to achieve outcomes for children/families with complex needs: Child and Family Teams – wraparound service delivery & integration Care Review Teams – public/private supervisors working together Community Collaborative – program administrators & community working together SOC Council – policy implementers working together Durham Directors – policy makers working together Utilize the Flow Chart to discuss the System of Care structure in Durham and explain what the directors and the SOC Council do. Community Collaborative will be discussed on the next slide. Emphasize the training, infrastructure, and other supports. Utilize the Flow Chart to discuss the System of Care structure in Durham and explain what the directors and the SOC Council do. Community Collaborative will be discussed on the next slide. Emphasize the training, infrastructure, and other supports.

17. Community Collaborative The Durham Community Collaborative (CC) is a diverse group of individuals committed to Durham’s children and families. The purpose of the Collaborative is to work together as full and equal partners to create neighborhood and community environments for Durham that empower and support children with special needs and their families to reach their full potential as responsible, productive and caring individuals. We welcome each of you to be a part of the community collaborative. It meets on the 4th Thursday of each month at the Durham Center from 10am-12pm. Much of the work of the collaborative is achieved through subcommittees. We hope that you might get involved with some of the work of a subcommittee as well. Some of these include family resources, community involvement, Faith partners, care review, training, and many more! We welcome each of you to be a part of the community collaborative. It meets on the 4th Thursday of each month at the Durham Center from 10am-12pm. Much of the work of the collaborative is achieved through subcommittees. We hope that you might get involved with some of the work of a subcommittee as well. Some of these include family resources, community involvement, Faith partners, care review, training, and many more!

21. Child and Family Teams and Wraparound Process

22. What are Child and Family Teams? The Child and Family Team is the ‘heart’ of the System of Care, building a team unique for each family, comprised of those persons who are important in their everyday lives. Supports and services are planned, coordinated, delivered and monitored through the Child and Family Team.

23. What is Wraparound? It is a philosophy that maintains that we must identify the community services and supports that a family needs and provide them as long as they are needed. Community resources are the primary mechanism for supporting the child and family. The community is viewed as the most effective means of family support. The formal service system is seen as secondary to community resources, but very important to family support.

24. What does a CFT do? Works together to develop a detailed and highly individualized comprehensive plan of service and supports with specific, achievable, strengths-based behaviors and goals. This plan guides service delivery, the provision of supports, and coordinates the work of the various participants using a wraparound approach; Focuses on what a child and/or family needs to succeed, not just what the “system” wants to offer; Works together to ensure that an informal support network is available to meet the needs of the child and family;

25. What does a CFT do? (Cont.) Works to ensure that services and supports are accessible to families and that they are offered at convenient times and locations; Checks to make sure services and supports are working and suggests changes when they are not working; and Evaluates and tracks the outcomes of services and supports delivered to ensure they succeeded in meeting projected outcomes.

26. Durham Public Schools: Positive Behavior Support

27. What is PBS? PBS stands for Positive Behavior Support PBS is not a curriculum PBS is a collaborative process for assessment and development of effective interventions Emphasizes the use of prevention, teaching and reinforcement-based strategies to achieve meaningful outcomes Aim is to build effective environments in which positive behavior is more effective than problem behavior

30. Positive Behavior Support Graphic This graphic describes the interplay between the three elements needed to create systems of PBS. Each system supports the other. Supporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behavior Emphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.Positive Behavior Support Graphic This graphic describes the interplay between the three elements needed to create systems of PBS. Each system supports the other. Supporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behavior Emphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.

31. Why PBS? Problems are increasing Typical responses are inefficient Schools implementing comprehensive PBS see long term change Reduction of ODR Reduction of suspension Increased staff morale and retention Positive school climate

32. Problem behavior is increasing Schoolwide discipline systems are typically unclear and inconsistently implemented Educators often rely on reactive and crisis management interventions to solve chronic problem behavior Educators often lack specialized skills to address severe problem behavior Teachers are being asked to do more with less Students have limited opportunities to learn school-based social skills and to receive feedback on their use Common Features of the Problem Context Common Features of Problem Context As you discuss each point on this slide, ask participants if they agree with these common features. Problem behavior is increasing, and the challenge is to build capacity within general teaching population to teach social skills. Schoolwide discipline systems—one way to test this is to ask students, staff volunteers, paraprofessionals, etc., “What are the school rules?” Teachers are being asked to do more with less—additional tasks are being added and nothing taken away. Schools are asked to be social brokers. We are not trained to connect families with community agencies. Students have limited opportunities—students do not come to school proficient in social skills but we know how important social skills are. Kindergarten teachers identify social skills as necessary to be successful. Schools do not have total responsibility to “fix” kids and families but schools are critical because we have kids more time than any other social agency.Common Features of Problem Context As you discuss each point on this slide, ask participants if they agree with these common features. Problem behavior is increasing, and the challenge is to build capacity within general teaching population to teach social skills. Schoolwide discipline systems—one way to test this is to ask students, staff volunteers, paraprofessionals, etc., “What are the school rules?” Teachers are being asked to do more with less—additional tasks are being added and nothing taken away. Schools are asked to be social brokers. We are not trained to connect families with community agencies. Students have limited opportunities—students do not come to school proficient in social skills but we know how important social skills are. Kindergarten teachers identify social skills as necessary to be successful. Schools do not have total responsibility to “fix” kids and families but schools are critical because we have kids more time than any other social agency.

33. Traditional Discipline versus PBS Traditional Discipline: - Focused on the student’s problem behavior - Goal was to stop undesirable behavior, through the use of punishment. Positive Behavior Support: - Replaces undesired behavior with a new behavior or skill. - PBS alters environments, teaches appropriate skills, and rewards appropriate behavior.

34. Typical responses are inefficient because they…. Foster environments of external control Reinforce antisocial behavior Shift accountability away from school Weaken the relationship between academic & social behavior programming Typical Responses Are Inefficient These summarize why our responses are not effective. Also, we remove the students from the classroom, the setting where learning can occur. Higher academic success = Lower behavior problems. Typical Responses Are Inefficient These summarize why our responses are not effective. Also, we remove the students from the classroom, the setting where learning can occur. Higher academic success = Lower behavior problems.

35. Schools with Effective Discipline Effective Leadership Work smarter not harder Active involvement Clarity in direction Move Beyond Punishment Teach, monitor, reward appropriate behaviors before relying on punishment Schools with Effective Discipline Effective Leadership—administrators need to be involved to support and provide direction but do not necessarily have to be a key player. Work smarter—schedule regular meeting times that are protected, use an agenda, and get communication methods established. Move Beyond Punishment—remember to ask yourselves, “What do we want the students to do instead?”Schools with Effective Discipline Effective Leadership—administrators need to be involved to support and provide direction but do not necessarily have to be a key player. Work smarter—schedule regular meeting times that are protected, use an agenda, and get communication methods established. Move Beyond Punishment—remember to ask yourselves, “What do we want the students to do instead?”

36. Schools with Effective Discipline Use different behavioral systems for different challenges Universal: Schoolwide When >35% of students receive referrals in a year Universal: Nonclassroom Settings When many problems located in one area Universal: Classroom When more than 50% of referrals from classroom Small Group / Individual Student Repeat offenders Use Different Behavioral Systems for Different Challenges These are guidelines to help teams determine where they want to begin to focus their work. Use Different Behavioral Systems for Different Challenges These are guidelines to help teams determine where they want to begin to focus their work.

37. Build Durable Systems Team-based change Administrative leadership Establish commitment Schoolwide discipline is one of the top three goals Three year timeframe Self-evaluation Build on what works Make all changes fit the local environment Self-Assessment Survey Schools with Effective Discipline Build Durable Systems We have been talking about how to build systems that will be maintained; this is not a quick fix. Team-based change—you may want to rotate people on teams; build on team members’ strengths, to reduce burn-out, and maximize input from critical players. When we’re working on cafeteria behavior, we need the cafeteria people. Administrator leadership—participation by administrator is critical, as we have emphasized throughout. Establish commitment—PBS must be one of the top school goals since it is a long term process and hard work. There has to be a commitment to keep discipline “on the front burner.” Self-evaluation—this system requires a culture that can take an honest look at data not to find fault, but to help guide decision making. Build Durable Systems We have been talking about how to build systems that will be maintained; this is not a quick fix. Team-based change—you may want to rotate people on teams; build on team members’ strengths, to reduce burn-out, and maximize input from critical players. When we’re working on cafeteria behavior, we need the cafeteria people. Administrator leadership—participation by administrator is critical, as we have emphasized throughout. Establish commitment—PBS must be one of the top school goals since it is a long term process and hard work. There has to be a commitment to keep discipline “on the front burner.” Self-evaluation—this system requires a culture that can take an honest look at data not to find fault, but to help guide decision making.

38. PBS Assumptions/Themes Focus on positive proactive programming Emphasis on clearly defined working structures Teacher/school takes ownership of student learning & behavioral challenges Problem behavior = Learning error High expectations for student success High value on learning (academic & behavior) Incentives Assumptions/Themes These following 4 slides are a review of what we have been discussing. Focus on positives—you should spend 80-90% of your time focusing on positive. Emphasize clearly defined working structures—this means that you work with observable “changeable” behaviors. You can’t change Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Mental Retardation, etc., so you work with the behaviors presented. You’re not trying to “fix” a child, nor can you go back and undo their background. Focus on the things you can control—build supports for the teacher who’s going back into the classroom with the child the next day. Build capacity and infrastructure and consistency across implementation. Teacher ownership DOESN’T mean they’re taking the BLAME. Problem behavior = Learning error—when a child can’t read, a teacher doesn’t yell, saying, “I told you a million times, the ‘i’ comes before the ‘e.’ Why can’t you get it right? Go to the principal’s office!” On the other hand, when a child comes into class repeatedly late, “I told you a million times, you have to be to class on time – go to the principal’s office!” Why are we assuming that one is a learning error and the other is not? With academics, we continually assess, re-teach, and practice. The same should be done with behavior.Assumptions/Themes These following 4 slides are a review of what we have been discussing. Focus on positives—you should spend 80-90% of your time focusing on positive. Emphasize clearly defined working structures—this means that you work with observable “changeable” behaviors. You can’t change Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Mental Retardation, etc., so you work with the behaviors presented. You’re not trying to “fix” a child, nor can you go back and undo their background. Focus on the things you can control—build supports for the teacher who’s going back into the classroom with the child the next day. Build capacity and infrastructure and consistency across implementation. Teacher ownership DOESN’T mean they’re taking the BLAME. Problem behavior = Learning error—when a child can’t read, a teacher doesn’t yell, saying, “I told you a million times, the ‘i’ comes before the ‘e.’ Why can’t you get it right? Go to the principal’s office!” On the other hand, when a child comes into class repeatedly late, “I told you a million times, you have to be to class on time – go to the principal’s office!” Why are we assuming that one is a learning error and the other is not? With academics, we continually assess, re-teach, and practice. The same should be done with behavior.

39. PBS Assumptions/Themes Assumptions/Themes (continued) This slide stresses the key role schools play in students’ lives. At-risk kids desperately need these predictable environments. Positive adult and peer models—resiliency research indicates that regardless of how bad things are in an individual child’s life, when they are asked as adults how they overcame those factors, they indicate that just one significant adult who found value and worth within them made the difference. Regular positive reinforcement—sometimes this practice is difficult to do with really tough kids. How do you say something like, “You breathe beautifully!” But it’s important to find something that can be complimented. The research indicates that even the worst kids are compliant about 80% of the time. We often don’t see it, because we are in tune with the negative behaviors they display.Assumptions/Themes (continued) This slide stresses the key role schools play in students’ lives. At-risk kids desperately need these predictable environments. Positive adult and peer models—resiliency research indicates that regardless of how bad things are in an individual child’s life, when they are asked as adults how they overcame those factors, they indicate that just one significant adult who found value and worth within them made the difference. Regular positive reinforcement—sometimes this practice is difficult to do with really tough kids. How do you say something like, “You breathe beautifully!” But it’s important to find something that can be complimented. The research indicates that even the worst kids are compliant about 80% of the time. We often don’t see it, because we are in tune with the negative behaviors they display.

40. Features of a Comprehensive System of PBS Total staff commitment to managing behavior Clearly defined and communicated expectations and rules Consequences and clearly stated procedures for rewarding appropriate behavior and for correcting rule-breaking behaviors An instructional component for teaching students self-control, expected behaviors, and social skills strategies A support plan to address the needs of students with chronic, challenging behaviors

41. Your School Can Expect to… reorganize to become more efficient and consistent in procedures use preventative measures to decrease inappropriate behaviors including teaching appropriate behavior experience a shift in the school’s attention from inappropriate to appropriate behavior experience a change in overall philosophy and school climate

42. Durham Public School Positive Behavior Support Continuum Planning for 2005/2006

43. What is the Positive Behavior Support Continuum? The Positive Behavior Support Continuum provides system-wide support in the areas of behavior and discipline to the Durham Public Schools. The continuum includes: Development of school based positive behavior support teams to build capacity at the school level In school intervention for high-end students Alternative programs for students who either need situational support or long-term service options.

44. What Will the Continuum Look Like? The Positive Behavior Support Coaches spearhead the prevention effort: Develop school-based teams Assist in developing and implementing 3-5 year plans for schools to meet behavioral goals Assist with development of plans for individual high end students There are 11 PBS coach positions

45. What Will the Continuum Look Like? The Positive Behavior Support Assistants provide direct support services: These services are either planned, in response to crisis or to assist with transitions These services are available to the entire system and are temporary. Crisis support and transition services are normally provided for 2 weeks. Stabilization or Planned programming normally is in place for 4-6 weeks. There are 11 positive Behavior Support Assistant positions.

46. What Will the Continuum Look Like? Alternative placement options include: Lakeview and Bacon Street COPE and Acute classrooms Goal: Develop additional intermediate options at the secondary level Provide situational/short-term support for students who do not need the longer-term services available at Bacon and Lakeview This can be done with existing resources

47. How Will Resources be Utilized? 3 regional teams Coaches and Behavior Support Assistants work with the regions In each region there will be: 3-4 Coaches 3 BSAs 1 BSA provides assessment of where it is needed throughout the system. Alternative programs will exist in each region for all levels Goal - Staff from these programs will team with the Coaches and BSAs to form each regional Behavior team

48. Why Develop a PBS Continuum? Designed to meet the needs of all students, exceptional and regular education State and National data indicate that schools and systems that incorporate this model have shown: Reductions in referrals to special education, Reduction of suspensions and office referrals improved attendance and increases in school performance measures.

49. Why Develop a PBS Continuum? The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction is going statewide with this model Durham Public School’s Positive Behavior Support Continuum has been an example for other systems to follow. The Positive Behavior Support Continuum supports other DPS goals Closing the achievement gap, Reducing suspensions and Supporting safe school environments for all of it’s students.

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