Secondary interventions check in check out as an example
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Secondary Interventions: Check-in/ Check-out as an Example. Rob Horner, Anne Todd, Amy Kauffman-Campbell, Jessica Swain-Bradway University of Oregon Goals. Define the features and purpose of “secondary interventions”

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Secondary Interventions: Check-in/ Check-out as an Example

Rob Horner, Anne Todd,

Amy Kauffman-Campbell, Jessica Swain-Bradway

University of Oregon


  • Define the features and purpose of “secondary interventions”

  • Describe one approach to secondary intervention (Check-in/Check-out)

    • Present research examining this approach

  • Suggest future research directions

Tertiary Prevention:



Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior





Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior


Primary Prevention:


Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings


~80% of Students





~80% of Students

Major Features of any SecondaryIntervention within SWPBS

  • Intervention is continuously available

  • Rapid access to intervention (72 hr)

  • Implemented across all settings/ times/ people in school

  • Very low effort by teachers

  • Consistent with school-wide expectations

  • Can be adapted based on assessment information

    • Functional Assessment

  • Adequate resources and administrative systems

    • weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a week (FTE)

  • Continuous monitoring for decision-making

Behavior Education PlanCheck-in/ Check-out

  • Variations on a long-standing strategy of using daily behavior report card

    • Many variations

BEP Plan

Weekly BEP Meeting

9 Week Graph Sent

Morning Check-In

Program Update

Daily Teacher Evaluation

Home Check-In


Afternoon Check-out

BEP/Check-in/ Check-out Cycles

Daily Progress Report

HAWK Report

Date ________ Student _______________Teacher___________________

Data Collection for Decision-Making

  • Monitor points earned each day

  • Office Discipline Referrals

  • Grades

  • Regular use of data by team

  • Outcome Data

Daily Data Used for Decision Making

Daily Data Used for Decision Making

Data Entry

What it will look like in CICO-SWIS

Student Progress Data

4 expectations are defined in Preferences

3 expectations are defined

Core features

  • Behavioral Priming/ Behavioral Momentum

    • Start school off positively

    • Start each class off positively

  • Student recruitment of contingent adult attention

    • Approach adults (teachers/ family)

  • Predictability

  • Self-management

  • Data-based decision-making

  • Excruciating Efficiency

Research Support

  • Pre schools

    • Sandy Chafouleas, et al 2007

  • Elementary Schools

    • Anne Todd et al in press

    • Sarah Fairbanks et al, 2007

    • Amy Kauffman-Campbell, dissertation

    • Doug Cheney et al, 2006; 2007

    • Leanne Hawken et al. 2007

    • Filter et al., 2007

  • Middle Schools

    • Leanne Hawken et al 2003

    • Rob March et al 2002

  • High Schools

    • Jessica Swain-Bradway, in progress

  • CICO is an Evidence-Based Practice

  • At least 5 peer reviewed studies

  • At least 3 different researchers/settings

  • At least 20 different participants

Evaluation of a Targeted Intervention Within a School-Wide System of Behavior Support

Leanne S. Hawken and Rob Horner

University of Oregon

Journal of Behavioral Education,

The Effects of a Targeted Intervention to Reduce Problem Behavior: Elementary Implementation of Check-in/ Check-out.

Anne Todd, Amy Kauffman, Gwen Meyer & Rob Horner

Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions

Research Question

  • Is there a functional relationship between implementation of Check in/ Check out and (a) reduction in problem behavior and (b) increase in academic engagement?


  • Four elementary age students with moderate levels of problem behavior.

  • Trevor

  • Chad

  • Kendall

  • Eric

BL Check-in/ Check-out

Percentage of Intervals with Problem Behavior

The Importance of Functional Behavioral Assessment in Targeted Interventions

Rob March & Rob Horner, Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,

Functional Assessment

  • Functional assessment interview (FACTS)

  • Defines:

    • Problem behaviors

    • Routines where problems most likely

    • Events that set off problem behaviors

    • Events that maintain problem behaviors

      • Attention (peer/adult)

      • Escape

      • Access to Activities/Items


CICO in High School

  • Jessica Swain-Bradway

    • Problem behavior most likely maintained by escape from academic tasks

    • Adult attention is a less effective reinforcer

    • Add academic support to CICO

    • Tailor adult access to those adults selected by student.


  • Secondary interventions are an important element in school-wide PBS

  • CICO is one approach that has documented success

  • __________________________

  • Future research directions

    • Effects of CICO when done within full SWPBS

    • Fading CICO support to self-management

    • Maintenance of effects

    • Sustainability of intervention

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