Chapter 6:. Social and Personality Development in Infancy. In This Chapter. Theories of Social and Personality Development Psychoanalytic Perspectives: Freud and Erikson. Freud: psychosexual stage related to infant attempts at needs satisfaction Oral stage
Social and Personality Development in Infancy
Freud: psychosexual stage related to infant attempts at needs satisfaction
Erikson: psychosocial stage in which attending to infant needs and social development important
Synchrony: Opportunity for parent-infant development of mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors
Takes practice to develop
Provides developmental benefits
Attachment: Emotional bond in which a person’s sense of security is bound up in the relationship
Strong emotional bond-making is innate
Bonds maintained by instinctive behaviors that create and sustain proximity
Mother’s bond with infant
Bond dependent on synchrony
Mothers provide more routine caregiving than fathers.
After first few weeks, mothers talk to and smile more at baby.
Father’s bond with infant
The relationship depends on synchrony.
Fathers have same repertoire as mothers.
After first few weeks, fathers begin to spend more time playing with baby.
Characteristics of attachment
Now let’s look at how several theorists operationalize this construct.
Establishing attachment: Bowlby’s 4 phases
Establishing attachment: Bowlby’s 4 phases
How would you recognize each of Bowlby’s phases?
What behaviors would you expect to see?
Protocol: The Strange Situation
Dependent on consistency of child’s life circumstances
Influenced by major upheavals
Internal models elaborated from year 1 until the age of 4 or 5
Caregivers and attachment
Several characteristics influence the attachment process:
Other caregiver characteristics influencing secure attachment
Questions To Ponder
What kind of attachment do you have with your parents? Has it changed since you were a child, or does it reflect the type of attachment you had when you were younger?
What factors will influence your choice of childcare if the one or both parents decide to work? What would be best for your child?
The securely attached:
Continues into adolescence
Attachment quality and consequences
Personality: Stable patterns in how people relate to those around them
Temperament: Basic behavioral and emotional predispositions
Dimensions of temperament: How are these theorist alike? Different?
How might results differ when temperament is viewed as a trait rather than a category?
Thomas and Chess
Parental influence with children at temperamental extremes
During the same months in which infants are developing an internal model of attachment and exploring their own unique temperament, they are also developing a unique sense of self.
What implication does this have for parents and caregivers?
The subjective self
The objective self
Rouge test (Lewis and Brooks)
Children at 21 months show self-recognition in a mirror.
What does this tell us about children’s development? How do you know?
First, babies learn to identify changes in emotional expression.
Gradually they learn to “read” and respond to facial expressions.
With age and experience, infants learn to interpret emotional perceptions of others to anticipate actions and guide own behavior.
Nonparental, quality care is beneficial for all children.
Arrangements vary considerably.
Time in care varies.
Some children in multiple care settings
Younger children less likely to receive nonparental care
High-quality daycare has beneficial effects, especially for children from poor families.
Later scores in reading and math related to daycare entry age and poverty
Infant daycare has negative effects on attachment if started under 1 year.
Parents whose behaviors are associated with insecure attachment have children who are negatively affected by early daycare.
Early day care associated with greater risks for social problems in school-age children
Complex interaction among numerous variables in all care types
Nonparental care varies in quality and structure.
Maternal attitudes toward care arrangement vary.
Multiple care settings difficult to separate
Nonparental care may induce child stress, causing higher levels of cortisol.
Variations in ways stress-induced related to child age and temperament
Individual and gender differences interact with nonparental care.