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Splash Screen. Introduction Section 1: The Land Section 2: Climate and Vegetation Visual Summary. Chapter Menu.

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Splash screen

Splash Screen

Chapter menu


Section 1:The Land

Section 2:Climate and Vegetation

Visual Summary

Chapter Menu

Chapter intro 1

A study of the physical geography of South Asia will explain the contrasts between the northern and southern areas of the region and how South Asia’s large populations depend upon the seasonal monsoon rains that sometimes bring devastating consequences.

Chapter Intro 1

Chapter intro 2

Section 1:The Land

Places reflect the relationship between humans and the physical environment. In South Asia’s varied landscapes, large numbers of people depend on the region’s physical environment, river systems, and natural resources for their livelihoods.

Chapter Intro 2

Chapter intro 3

Section 2: Climate and Vegetation

The characteristics and distribution of ecosystems help people understand environmental issues. Seasonal winds in South Asia strongly influence temperature and rainfall, which affect what crops people grow and how people and the environment are affected by too much or too little rain.

Chapter Intro 3

Chapter preview end

Chapter Preview-End

Section 1 gtr

The Land

In South Asia’s varied landscapes, large numbers of people depend on the region’s physical environment, river systems, and natural resources for their livelihoods.

Section 1-GTR

Section 1 gtr1

The Land

  • subcontinent

  • alluvial plain

Section 1-GTR

Section 1 gtr2

The Land


B.Khyber Pass

C.Gangetic Plain


E.Satpura Range

F.Deccan Plateau

G. Ganges River

H.Brahmaputra River

I.Indus River

Section 1-GTR

Section 1





The Land

Which mountain range absorbs the monsoon rains and slowly releases them into the region?

A.Eastern Ghats

B.Western Ghats


D.Vindhya Range

Section 1

Section 11


South Asia’s landforms affect where people live and influence seasonal rain patterns.

  • Northern landforms:

  • Himalaya Mountains

  • Karakoram Mountains

  • Hindu Kush range

  • Khyber Pass

Section 1

Section 12

Landforms (cont.)

  • Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra rivers

  • Gangetic Plain

  • Chota Nagpur Plateau

Section 1

Section 13

Landforms (cont.)

  • Central and Southern landforms:

  • Eastern and Western Ghats

  • Deccan Plateau

  • Sri Lanka

  • Maldives

South Asia: Elevation Profile

Section 1

Section 14





South Asia is separated from the rest of Asia by which of the following?



C.Dense forests

D.An ocean

Section 1

Section 15

Water Systems

South Asia’s major river systems bring fertile soil to the floodplains, serve as transportation routes, and provide hydroelectricity.

  • Three major river systems:

  • Ganges—most important river in South Asia

  • Brahmaputra

  • Indus

Section 1

Section 16




Which river is known as the “cradle of ancient India”?




Section 1

Section 17

Natural Resources

South Asia has a variety of natural resources upon which large populations are dependent for their livelihoods.

  • Rivers:

  • Drinking water

  • Alluvial soil

  • Transportation

  • Hydroelectric power

  • Fish

Section 1

Section 18

Natural Resources (cont.)

  • Mineral resources, such as iron ore and graphite

  • Energy sources, such as petroleum, natural gas

  • Timber resources, such as sandalwood and teak

Section 1

Section 19





Which country is the world’s largest producer of graphite?

A.Sri Lanka




Section 1

Section 1 end

Section 1-End

Section 2 gtr

Climate and Vegetation

Seasonal winds in South Asia strongly influence temperature and rainfall, which affect what crops people grow and how people and the environment are affected by too much or too little rain.

Section 2-GTR

Section 2 gtr1

Climate and Vegetation

  • monsoon

  • tsunami

  • cyclone

  • period

  • triggers

Section 2-GTR

Section 2 gtr2

Climate and Vegetation

A.Bay of Bengal


C.Thar Desert

Section 2-GTR

Section 2





Climate and Vegetation

Most of Asia experiences which type of climate?





Section 2

Section 21

Climate Regions

Much of South Asia has tropical climates with ample rainfall and a variety of vegetation; however, the climates vary widely in the north and west, where mountain ranges block rainfall.

  • Tropical regions:

    • Tropical wet

    • Tropical dry

South Asia: Vegetation

Section 2

Section 22

Climate Regions (cont.)

  • Midlatitude and highland regions:

  • Mixed forest

  • Deciduous forest

  • Humid subtropical

  • Himalayan highlands

  • Dry regions:

  • Desert—Thar Desert

  • Steppe

Section 2

Section 23



Does much of South Asia lie south or north of the Tropic of Cancer?



Section 2

Section 24

Seasonal Weather Patterns

Seasonal weather patterns bring much-needed rainfall to South Asia, but monsoon winds, as well as other natural disasters, can also bring devastating hardships.

  • Three distinct seasons:

    • Hot

    • Wet

    • Cool

Comparing Climates

Section 2

Section 25

Seasonal Weather Patterns (cont.)

  • These seasons depend on seasonal winds called monsoons.

  • Temperature and rainfall impact agriculture in the region.

  • Factors:

  • Extreme heat

  • Monsoon winds

Section 2

Section 26

Seasonal Weather Patterns (cont.)

  • Natural disasters:

  • Flooding from monsoon rains

  • Cyclones

  • Earthquakes

  • Tsunamis

Section 2

Section 27





The monsoons are heaviest in which part of South Asia?





Section 2

Section 2 end

Section 2-End

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  • A.The Himalaya

  • Created by collision of tectonic plates; extend more than 1,500 miles (2,414 km) across northern edge of South Asia

  • Includes Mount Everest, the world’s highest peak at 29,028 feet (8,848 m)

VS 1

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B.Gangetic Plain

•World’s longest alluvial plain

•Watered by the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus Rivers; agriculturally productive area

•India’s most densely populated area

VS 2

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C.Vindhya and Satpura Ranges

•Mountains in central India created by collision of tectonic plates

•Separate the distinct cultures of northern and southern India

VS 3

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D.Indus River

• Flows mainly through Pakistan; empties into Arabian Sea

•Known as the cradle of ancient India

•Remains an important transportation route

VS 4

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E.Deccan Plateau

•Plateau region in southern India; located between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats

•Rich soil with wet and dry seasons

VS 5

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F.Ganges River

•Flows east from the Himalaya; empties into Bay of Bengal

•Drainage basin covers about 400,000 square miles (about 1 million sq. km)

•Named for Hindu goddess Ganga; sacred to Hindus

VS 6

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G.Brahmaputra River

• Flows through India and Bangladesh

•Joins the Ganges river to form a delta; empties into Bay of Bengal

•Major inland waterway; also provides hydroelectric power

VS 7

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• Hot season is from late February to June

•Wet season is from June or July to September

•Cool season is from October to late February

VS 8

Vs end


Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 3

Dfs trans 1

DFS Trans 1

Dfs trans 2

DFS Trans 2



large landmass that is part of a continent but still distinct from it, such as India



alluvial plain

floodplain, such as the Gangetic Plain in South Asia, on which flooding rivers have deposited rich soil




in Asia, seasonal wind that brings warm, moist air from the oceans in summer and cold, dry air from inland in winter




storm with heavy rains and high winds which blow in a circular pattern around an area of low atmospheric pressure




Japanese term used for a huge sea wave caused by an undersea earthquake


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