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Splash Screen. The underlying pattern of social relationships in a group is called the social structure. Status is one very important element of social structure. Ascribed statuses are assigned at birth; achieved statuses are earned or chosen. Section 1-Preview. social structure status

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Splash screen

Splash Screen


Section 1 preview

The underlying pattern of social relationships in a group is called the social structure. Status is one very important element of social structure. Ascribed statuses are assigned at birth; achieved statuses are earned or chosen.

Section 1-Preview


Section 1 key terms

social structure

status

ascribed status

achieved status

status set

master status

Section 1-Key Terms


Section 1

Social Structure Is All Around You

  • Social structure is the underlying patterns of relationships in a group.

Section 1


Section 11

Everyone Has Status

  • Astatus is a position a person occupies within a social structure.

  • An ascribed status is neither earned nor chosen; it is assigned to us.

Section 1


Section 12

Everyone Has Status (cont.)

  • An achieved status is earned or chosen.

  • A status set is all of the statuses that a person occupies at any particular time.

The Interrelationships of Social Statuses

Section 1


Section 13

Everyone Has Status (cont.)

  • Master statuses can be achieved or ascribed; they significantly affect the likelihood of achieving other social statuses.

Section 1


Section 2 preview

People interact according to prescribed roles. These roles carry certain rights and obligations. Sometimes conflict or strain occurs when an individual has too many roles to play.

Section 2-Preview


Section 2 key terms

role

right

obligation

role performance

social interaction

role conflict

role strain

Section 2-Key Terms


Section 2

Rights and Obligations

  • An expected behavior associated with a particular status is a role.

  • Rightsare behaviors that individuals expect from others.

  • Obligationsare behaviors that individuals are expected to perform toward others.

Section 2


Section 21

Role Performance and Social Interaction

  • Roleperformance is the actual conduct, or behavior, involved in carrying out (or performing) a role.

  • Social interaction is the process of influencing each other as people relate.

The Links Between Culture and Social Structure

Section 2


Section 22

Role Performance and Social Interaction (cont.)

  • Role performance is much like a play, but there are many differences:

  • Most real-life role performance occurs without planning.

  • Real-life performance is ad-libbed.

  • We choose our own cues and responses.

Section 2


Section 23

Role Conflict and Role Strain

  • Role conflict exists when the performance of a role in one status clashes with the performance of a role in another.

  • Role strain occurs when a person has trouble meeting the many roles connected with a single status.

Section 2


Section 24

Role Conflict and Role Strain (cont.)

  • To deal with the conflict and strain we:

  • Set priorities

  • Segregate roles

Illustrating Social Structure Concepts

Unemployment Rates

Section 2


Section 3 preview

The way a society provides for basic needs greatly affects its culture and social structure. Preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial societies meet basic needs in different ways. Preindustrial societies include hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoral, and agricultural societies.

Section 3-Preview


Section 3 key terms

society

hunting and gathering society

horticultural society

pastoral society

agricultural society

Section 3-Key Terms


Section 3

Types of Society

  • A societyis composed of people living within defined territorial borders who share a common culture.

Section 3


Section 31

Hunting and Gathering Societies

  • Hunting and gathering society survives by hunting animals and gathering edible foods.

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 32

Hunting and Gathering Societies (cont.)

  • Characteristics:

  • Nomadic

  • Small in population

  • Cooperation and sharing are key

  • No social class

  • Family is the only institution

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 33

Horticultural Societies

  • A horticultural society solves the subsistence problem primarily through the growing of plants.

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 34

Horticultural Societies (cont.)

  • Characteristics:

  • More permanent settlements

  • Multicommunity societies

  • Family more key

  • More complex division of labor

  • Trade possible

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 35

Pastoral Societies

  • In pastoral societies, food is obtained primarily by raising and taking care of animals.

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 36

Pastoral Societies (cont.)

  • Characteristics:

  • Migration still needed, but with some permanent villages

  • Male dominated

  • More complex division of labor

  • Trade possible

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 37

Agricultural Societies

  • An agricultural society subsists by growing food, but with the use of plows and animals.

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 38

Agricultural Societies (cont.)

  • Characteristics:

  • More food per unit of land due to the plow

  • Animals allow more people to engage in noneconomic activities

  • Cities built

  • Other occupations appear

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 39

Agricultural Societies (cont.)

  • Political, economic, religious institutions appear

  • Government replaces the family group

  • King or emperor rules

  • Social classes

  • Economy based on trade

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 310

Agricultural Societies (cont.)

  • Monetary system

  • Separation between religion and government

Time Line of Societies

Section 3


Section 4 preview

The Industrial Revolution created a new type of society, called the industrial society. Characteristics that distinguish this society from all earlier ones include the growth of large cities and a wide-spread dependence on machines and technology. Postindustrial society has a predominately white-collar labor force that is concentrated in service industries. Social instability has been linked to the transition from an industrial to a postindustrial society.

Section 4-Preview


Section 4 key terms

industrial society

mechanization

urbanization

gemeinschaft

gesellschaft

social solidarity

  • mechanical solidarity

  • organic solidarity

  • postindustrial society

Section 4-Key Terms


Section 4

Basic Features of Industrial Societies

  • The industrial society is one that is dependent upon science and technology to produce its basic goods and services.

Section 4


Section 41

Basic Features of Industrial Societies (cont.)

  • When societies shift from agricultural to industrial, some of the structural changes are:

  • A loss of simplicity and a gain of scientific knowledge

  • Animal and human labor is replaced by machines (mechanization)

Agricultural Employment

Section 4


Section 42

Basic Features of Industrial Societies (cont.)

  • Urbanization—the movement from the country to the city

  • Families function differently

Section 4


Section 43

A Conversation with Two Sociologists

  • Tonnies’s view—two types of society:

  • Gemeinschaft= community; a society based on tradition, kinship, and intimate social relationships.

  • Gesellschaft = industrial society; weak family ties, competition, and less personal social relationships.

Section 4


Section 44

A Conversation with Two Sociologists (cont.)

  • Durkheim’s view:

  • Social solidarity is the degree to which a society is unified or can hold itself together in the face of obstacles.

Section 4


Section 45

A Conversation with Two Sociologists (cont.)

  • Two types of society that depend on solidarity:

  • Mechanical solidarity applies when members of a society hold the same beliefs, values, and norms; they tend to conform and depend on tradition and family to fulfill their needs.

  • Organic solidarity applies when members of an industrial society depend on a variety of people to fulfill their needs.

Section 4


Section 46

Major Features of Postindustrial Society

  • In a postindustrial society, the economic emphasis is on providing services and information rather than on producing goods through basic manufacturing.

Section 4


Section 47

Major Features of Postindustrial Society (cont.)

  • Five features of this society, according to Daniel Bell:

  • For the first time, the majority of the labor force are employed in services rather than in agriculture or manufacturing.

  • White-collar employment replaces much blue-collar work.

Section 4


Section 48

Major Features of Postindustrial Society (cont.)

  • Technical knowledge is the key organizing feature in the postindustrial society.

  • Technological change is planned and assessed.

  • Computer modeling is relied upon in all areas.

Section 4


Section 49

Social Instability in Postindustrial Society

  • Historian Francis Fukuyama believes that the transition to a service economy has increased social instability in nations undergoing this change.

  • However, he sees current indications of a return to social stability because humans find it difficult to live without values and norms.

Section 4


Figure 5 1

The Interrelationships of Social Statuses

Figure 5.1


Figure 5 2

The Links Between Culture and Social Structure

Figure 5.2


Figure 5 3

Figure 5.3


Time line 1

Time Line of Societies

Time Line 1


Time line 2

Time Line of Societies

Time Line 2


Transparency 1

Transparency 1


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