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The Middle East from 1956. History 12 Ms Leslie. Since the creation of Israel the Arab reaction has been a problem 1948 Israel created and attacked 1956 Suez Crisis Shaky cease-fire agreements Guerilla attacks. 1960’s. New anti-Israel terrorist group El Fatah

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The middle east from 1956

The Middle East from 1956

History 12

Ms Leslie



1960 s
1960’s problem

  • New anti-Israel terrorist group El Fatah

  • Called the PLO after 1964 and led by Yasser Arafat.



Hafiz hasad defense minister of syria 1966
Hafiz Hasad, defense minister of Syria, 1966 problem

  • We say: we shall never call for nor accept peace. We shall only accept war and the restoration of the usurped land. We have resolved to drench this land with your blood; to oust you, aggressors, and throw you into the sea for good. We must meet as soon as possible and fight a single liberation war on the level of the whole area against Israel, imperialism and all the enemies of the people.


Israel s future looks bleak
Israel’s Future looks bleak problem

  • They have to counter attack guerilla raids

  • Syrian shelling of Israeli settlements from the Golan heights also brought retaliation.

  • 1967 Nasser removes UN peace keepers form the Sinai - Egyptian troops take their place

  • Nasser again sealed off the Gulf of Aqaba (straits of Tiran) by moving artillery into the strategic base at Sharm-el-Sheikh.



The 6 day war 5 10 june 1967
The 6 Day War, 5-10 June, 1967 500 planes ready for action

  • Greatest mobilized attack since WWII

  • Nasser Kicked out the UN peaceforce and mobilized the Egyptian army on the Sinai Border

  • Within 2 hours Israel fighter-bombers had destroyed the Egyptian air force

  • El Arish fell in a day (North)

  • Sharm-el-Sheikh on the following day


Day 3
Day 3 500 planes ready for action

  • Israeli troops were again on the eastern bank of the Suez Canal - possessed the Sinai Pennunsula

  • Took the Golan Heights in the North as well


  • Key objective to control Jerusalem 500 planes ready for action

  • City had been in Jordanian hands since 1948

  • Desperate hand to hand combat led to Israel capturing the city in 3 days



Results of the 6 day war
Results of the 6 day war Heights

1. Palestinian refugees finally realized that Arab states could not win back Palestine

2. Israel had secured stronger borders.



6 day war and the cold war
6 day war and the Cold War Heights

  • USSR had mobalized to help out Egypt

  • Told USA first so the Americans asked Israel to cut it out

  • Cold have resulted in WWIII


Palestinians without a state terrorism
Palestinians without a state = terrorism Heights

  • At the 1972, Munich Olympics a faction that called itself Black September murdered 11 Israeli athletes before security forces killed them.



Ussr s reaction
USSR’s reaction between another group, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and security forces.

  • Defeat of Egypt an embarrassment

  • USSR had mobilized troops to counter attack Israel, but USA made them back down

  • USA got Israel to halt their attacks.


1970 anwar sadat replaced nasser
1970 between another group, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and security forces.Anwar Sadat replaced Nasser.

  • Nicer to Israel (at first)

  • Didn’t want to be dependant on USSR, but wanted aid

  • In 1972, kicked out all soviet advisors when the aid stopped.

  • Anti American


Yom kippur war 1973
Yom Kippur War - 1973 between another group, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and security forces.

  • PLO putting pressure on Arab states

  • Russia warns Arab states Israel may attack

  • Sadat wants to take back lost territories


  • Egyptian, Iraqi and Syrian forces attacked during the Jewish fast of Yom Kippur, hoping to catch the Israelis off guard.

  • At first the Egyptians experienced great success, with most Israelis attending synagogue, the Israeli Bar Lev line on the Suez canal was breached.

  • Thus Israelis lost many aircraft to Egypt’s Soviet-built SAMs (Surface to air missiles)


  • Israel turned to USA for help fast of Yom Kippur, hoping to catch the Israelis off guard.

  • Massive airlift takes place to help turn the tide

  • US forces go on alert to keep soviets at bay


Counter attack
Counter-attack fast of Yom Kippur, hoping to catch the Israelis off guard.

  • Israeli air force developed tactics capable of handling Syrian SAMs, soon 1,000 Syrian tanks were destroyed

  • In the Sinai, and Israeli counter-strike crossed the Canal and cut off the Egyptian 3rd army on the other side.



Opec oil embargo
OPEC - Oil Embargo again the two sides were unwilling to compromise.

  • organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • During the whole war

  • OPEC raised the price of crude by 70%.

  • The embargo lasted 5 months and in the next 2 years the price of oil quadrupled

  • Massive line ups to get gas


Peace
Peace? again the two sides were unwilling to compromise.

  • Sadat and Egypt were aligning with USA and away from USSR.

  • Sadat did not want a war every 10 years

  • Made talks between Israel and Egypt possible


1977 again the two sides were unwilling to compromise.

  • President Anwar Sadat made an unprecedented trip to Israel, where he addressed the Israeli Knesset, appealing for peace between the two countries.

  • Was an enormous personal risk for Sadat because it alienated Egypt’s Arab allies and had no guarantee of success.



Camp david
Camp David Israeli Prime Minister to visit Cairo.

  • a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland used as a country retreat of the President of the United States and his guests.


Camp david accords
Camp David Accords Israeli Prime Minister to visit Cairo.

  • 1978 - President Carter invited Begin and Sadat to draft a treaty

  • Agree to: Not make war, Negotiate the refugee problem, Israel can use the Suez Canal, and Israel would get their oil from Egypt.


  • Sadat ended the 30 year state of war between his country and Israel and offered final diplomatic recognition.

  • Begin agreed at pull out of the Sinai in 3 stages, restoring it to Egypt even at the cost of bulldozing Israeli settlements in the region.

  • He also promised autonomy for Arabs living in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.


Results from camp david
Results from Camp David Israel and offered final diplomatic recognition.

  • Egypt was kicked out of OPEC. – other Arab countries did not like their dealings with Israel.

  • Resurgence of Islamic fundamentalist groups.

  • Sadat gets a Nobel Peace Prize



Did israel stay true to the treaty
Did Israel stay true to the treaty? Sadat’s actions.

  • Israel made new Jewish settlements on the West Bank

  • passed the Jerusalem Law, which moved the national capital from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem

  • In 1981, Israel also formally annexed the Golan Heights.


End of sadat
End of Sadat Sadat’s actions.

  • Gave sanctuary to the Iranian Shah

  • Accused of corruption

  • 1981 was gunned down in a military parade

  • Replaced by Hosni Mabarak


Lebanon
Lebanon Sadat’s actions.

  • Became independent from France in 1945.

  • After being thrown out of Jordan the PLO moved its operational headquarters here

  • PLO upset racial and religious balance

  • Land fought over by Muslims, Christians and Palestinians



  • 1976 the Syrians intervened to restore order, but they came into conflict with the Palestinians in doing so.

  • A wider Arab peace-keeping force was sent in, with the Creation of the 10,000 man Arab Deterrent Force (ADF).

  • But the presence of this largely Syrian force alarmed the Israelis, who were already unhappy about PLO raids from Israel.





  • 1982 the Israelis returned in force. the setting up on an ‘Independent Free Lebanon’ in the south.

  • goal was to destroy the PLO in Lebanon.

  • 6,000 PLO fighters found themselves trapped in Beirut.

  • Eventually US intervention (with UK, France, and Italy) brought a cease fire




Lebanon now
Lebanon now Syria, but the key leadership moved to Tunisia.

  • Unstable government

  • Sunni Muslims fight Shiites, or Druzhe, or Christians.

  • Fundamentalists fight moderates.

  • Syrians sometimes intervene and restore order, while Israelis frequently send in forces to eliminate the omnipresent guerillas.


The iran iraq war 1980 88
The Iran-Iraq War 1980-88 Syria, but the key leadership moved to Tunisia.

  • Saddam Hussein feared Islamic revolution

    • Majortity Shiite

    • Iran wanted to Export Islam while Iran wanted it out

  • Oil tankers in the Persian Gulf were threatened by mines.

  • The USA, and UK supported Saddam because of the treatment Iran was giving them.


Saddam and donald rumsfeld
Saddam and Donald Rumsfeld Syria, but the key leadership moved to Tunisia.


  • Chemical weapons used Syria, but the key leadership moved to Tunisia.

  • Oil platforms burned

  • Iran lost about 1 million civilians and soldiers

  • Iraq lost about 350,000

  • Both spent $500 billion


  • Mustard gas was used Syria, but the key leadership moved to Tunisia.

  • Causes burning and yellow blisters on skin

  • Can blind

  • Burns the lung tissue

  • Heal extremely slow



Build up to the gulf war
Build up to the Gulf War win

  • Threat of Islamic Revolution

  • Saddam wants more power in the area

  • Iraq was in debt after the Iran-Iraq war

  • Saddam had Treated the Kurds badly

  • Iraq making WMDs (maybe)


The first gulf war 1990 91
The First Gulf War 1990-91 win

  • Aug 1990 – Iraqi government ordered troops to invade Kuwait.

  • Hussein said that it ‘belonged’ to Iraq historically.

  • Did not expect international community to react because USA had stated they don’t care about Kuwait




Counter attack1
Counter - Attack win

  • Led by President George Bush Sr.

  • Supported by UK and later Saudis, Syrians and Egyptians (out of fear of Saddam)

  • Demanded Saddam out by Jan 15, 1991

  • Force of 950,000




Operation desert storm
Operation Desert Storm Yemen

  • Begins Feb 24.

  • Bombed Baghdad and other locations for 1 month

  • A 4 day ground campaign chased Iraq out of Kuwait. Iraq lost 90,000 men.

  • Bush called a ceasefire in fear that the Arab countries in the Coalition would leave.



  • Iraq forced out of Kuwait Israel

  • 1992- economic sanctions placed until Saddam got rid of his arsenal

  • World waited for Israel to respond to the SCUD attack

  • USA missed chance to remove Saddam


Was it all about resources
Was it all about resources? Israel

  • Iraq needed $

  • Oil prices had fallen in the 1980’s

  • Iraq demanded Kuwait’s oil fields and $2 billion

  • When defeated, Iraq burned oil fields in retreat

  • US/UN reaction swift because oil supplies at risk (would it be the same reaction if Kuwait grew broccoli?)


No it wasn t about resources
No, it wasn’t about resources Israel

  • Iraq’s real motive was domination

  • For Arab sates, it was self defense

  • UN action about ‘collective security’ not oil

  • Israel got involved only after missile attacks

  • Many involved did not rely on Persian Gulf oil

  • Military just wanted to test their weapons


Issues during and after the gulf war
Issues during and after the Gulf war Israel

1. Weapons of Mass destruction threat. Saddam trying to develop nuclear weapons in the 1980’s. he did have Biological and poison gas weapons. Which he used against the Kurds.

2. USSR was collapsing.


Saddam ordered burning of kuwait s oilfields
Saddam ordered burning of Kuwait’s oilfields Israel

  • Smoke was so thick the sun was blocked out

  • Spills everywhere, many birds died

  • Huge environmental problems


Gulf war syndrome
Gulf war syndrome Israel

  • Soldiers exposed to chemicals, pollutants, depleted uranium, pesticides, PTSD and vaccines

  • fatigue, loss of muscle control, headaches, dizziness and loss of balance, memory problems, muscle and joint pain, indigestion, skin problems, birth defects


  • Pesticides given to repel bug bites Israel

  • Anti-gas pills against gas attacks

  • Exposure to Sarin and Mustard gas

  • First time DU used in munitions

  • Anthrax vaccine has side effects


Conclusions on the middle east
Conclusions on the Middle East Israel

  • This dispute will not go away

  • Jews and Palestinians will always lay claim to the same land

  • Prosperity in the area will always be hampered by struggle

  • End :)


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