The middle east from 1956
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 71

The Middle East from 1956 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Middle East from 1956. History 12 Ms Leslie. Since the creation of Israel the Arab reaction has been a problem 1948 Israel created and attacked 1956 Suez Crisis Shaky cease-fire agreements Guerilla attacks. 1960’s. New anti-Israel terrorist group El Fatah

Download Presentation

The Middle East from 1956

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

The middle east from 1956

The Middle East from 1956

History 12

Ms Leslie

The middle east from 1956

  • Since the creation of Israel the Arab reaction has been a problem

  • 1948 Israel created and attacked

  • 1956 Suez Crisis

  • Shaky cease-fire agreements

  • Guerilla attacks

1960 s


  • New anti-Israel terrorist group El Fatah

  • Called the PLO after 1964 and led by Yasser Arafat.

The middle east from 1956

  • The PLO launched attacks from Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

  • They hid in refugee camps along the borders

Hafiz hasad defense minister of syria 1966

Hafiz Hasad, defense minister of Syria, 1966

  • We say: we shall never call for nor accept peace. We shall only accept war and the restoration of the usurped land. We have resolved to drench this land with your blood; to oust you, aggressors, and throw you into the sea for good. We must meet as soon as possible and fight a single liberation war on the level of the whole area against Israel, imperialism and all the enemies of the people.

Israel s future looks bleak

Israel’s Future looks bleak

  • They have to counter attack guerilla raids

  • Syrian shelling of Israeli settlements from the Golan heights also brought retaliation.

  • 1967 Nasser removes UN peace keepers form the Sinai - Egyptian troops take their place

  • Nasser again sealed off the Gulf of Aqaba (straits of Tiran) by moving artillery into the strategic base at Sharm-el-Sheikh.

The middle east from 1956

  • 100,000 Egyptian troops and 1300 tanks in the Sinai, with 500 planes ready for action

  • Jordanian, Syrian and Iraqi troops also preparing for action,

  • Israel decided to launch a pre-emptive strike.

The 6 day war 5 10 june 1967

The 6 Day War, 5-10 June, 1967

  • Greatest mobilized attack since WWII

  • Nasser Kicked out the UN peaceforce and mobilized the Egyptian army on the Sinai Border

  • Within 2 hours Israel fighter-bombers had destroyed the Egyptian air force

  • El Arish fell in a day (North)

  • Sharm-el-Sheikh on the following day

Day 3

Day 3

  • Israeli troops were again on the eastern bank of the Suez Canal - possessed the Sinai Pennunsula

  • Took the Golan Heights in the North as well

The middle east from 1956

  • Key objective to control Jerusalem

  • City had been in Jordanian hands since 1948

  • Desperate hand to hand combat led to Israel capturing the city in 3 days

The middle east from 1956

  • Last 3 days - Israeli armoured divisions captured the Golan Heights

  • June 10 - Syrian resistance also collapsed with Israeli forces only 20 miles from Damascus, the Capital.

Results of the 6 day war

Results of the 6 day war

1.Palestinian refugees finally realized that Arab states could not win back Palestine

2.Israel had secured stronger borders.

The middle east from 1956

  • World is shocked at scale of Israeli victory

  • Arab worlds failed against a tiny opponent

  • UN proposed they withdraw in Resolution 272 - Israel refused, giving them enemies in their borders

6 day war and the cold war

6 day war and the Cold War

  • USSR had mobalized to help out Egypt

  • Told USA first so the Americans asked Israel to cut it out

  • Cold have resulted in WWIII

Palestinians without a state terrorism

Palestinians without a state = terrorism

  • At the 1972, Munich Olympics a faction that called itself Black September murdered 11 Israeli athletes before security forces killed them.

The middle east from 1956

  • At Lydda airport, 100 casualties resulted for a gun battle between another group, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and security forces.

  • Bombings and aircraft hijackings became a regular occurrence at Palestinians focused world attention on their problem

Ussr s reaction

USSR’s reaction

  • Defeat of Egypt an embarrassment

  • USSR had mobilized troops to counter attack Israel, but USA made them back down

  • USA got Israel to halt their attacks.

1970 anwar sadat replaced nasser

1970 Anwar Sadat replaced Nasser.

  • Nicer to Israel (at first)

  • Didn’t want to be dependant on USSR, but wanted aid

  • In 1972, kicked out all soviet advisors when the aid stopped.

  • Anti American

Yom kippur war 1973

Yom Kippur War - 1973

  • PLO putting pressure on Arab states

  • Russia warns Arab states Israel may attack

  • Sadat wants to take back lost territories

The middle east from 1956

  • Egyptian, Iraqi and Syrian forces attacked during the Jewish fast of Yom Kippur, hoping to catch the Israelis off guard.

  • At first the Egyptians experienced great success, with most Israelis attending synagogue, the Israeli Bar Lev line on the Suez canal was breached.

  • Thus Israelis lost many aircraft to Egypt’s Soviet-built SAMs (Surface to air missiles)

The middle east from 1956

  • Israel turned to USA for help

  • Massive airlift takes place to help turn the tide

  • US forces go on alert to keep soviets at bay

Counter attack


  • Israeli air force developed tactics capable of handling Syrian SAMs, soon 1,000 Syrian tanks were destroyed

  • In the Sinai, and Israeli counter-strike crossed the Canal and cut off the Egyptian 3rd army on the other side.

The middle east from 1956

  • Soviets and the Americans jointly arranged a cease-fire, but again the two sides were unwilling to compromise.

  • Israel refused to give up conquered territory.

  • Egypt and Syria refused to accept the existence of a Jewish Israeli sate.

Opec oil embargo

OPEC - Oil Embargo

  • organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • During the whole war

  • OPEC raised the price of crude by 70%.

  • The embargo lasted 5 months and in the next 2 years the price of oil quadrupled

  • Massive line ups to get gas



  • Sadat and Egypt were aligning with USA and away from USSR.

  • Sadat did not want a war every 10 years

  • Made talks between Israel and Egypt possible

The middle east from 1956


  • President Anwar Sadat made an unprecedented trip to Israel, where he addressed the Israeli Knesset, appealing for peace between the two countries.

  • Was an enormous personal risk for Sadat because it alienated Egypt’s Arab allies and had no guarantee of success.

The middle east from 1956

  • Soon after, Begin returned the visit, becoming the first Israeli Prime Minister to visit Cairo.

Camp david

Camp David

  • a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland used as a country retreat of the President of the United States and his guests.

Camp david accords

Camp David Accords

  • 1978 - President Carter invited Begin and Sadat to draft a treaty

  • Agree to: Not make war, Negotiate the refugee problem, Israel can use the Suez Canal, and Israel would get their oil from Egypt.

The middle east from 1956

  • Sadat ended the 30 year state of war between his country and Israel and offered final diplomatic recognition.

  • Begin agreed at pull out of the Sinai in 3 stages, restoring it to Egypt even at the cost of bulldozing Israeli settlements in the region.

  • He also promised autonomy for Arabs living in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

Results from camp david

Results from Camp David

  • Egypt was kicked out of OPEC. – other Arab countries did not like their dealings with Israel.

  • Resurgence of Islamic fundamentalist groups.

  • Sadat gets a Nobel Peace Prize

The middle east from 1956

  • Arab extremists within and without Egypt were appalled by Sadat’s actions.

  • The Headquarters of the Arab League were pulled out of Cairo and moved to Tunis.

  • All of the Arab states except the Sudan and Morocco condemned the treaty

Did israel stay true to the treaty

Did Israel stay true to the treaty?

  • Israel made new Jewish settlements on the West Bank

  • passed the Jerusalem Law, which moved the national capital from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem

  • In 1981, Israel also formally annexed the Golan Heights.

End of sadat

End of Sadat

  • Gave sanctuary to the Iranian Shah

  • Accused of corruption

  • 1981 was gunned down in a military parade

  • Replaced by Hosni Mabarak



  • Became independent from France in 1945.

  • After being thrown out of Jordan the PLO moved its operational headquarters here

  • PLO upset racial and religious balance

  • Land fought over by Muslims, Christians and Palestinians

The middle east from 1956

  • 1975 civil war broke out between left Wing Muslims and the Christian Phalange. Cease fires were arranged, but the didn’t stick. (doesn’t really end until 1991)

  • 500,000 Palestinian refugees in the South - Terrorists attack Israel from there, causing Israel to attack frequently

The middle east from 1956

  • 1976 the Syrians intervened to restore order, but they came into conflict with the Palestinians in doing so.

  • A wider Arab peace-keeping force was sent in, with the Creation of the 10,000 man Arab Deterrent Force (ADF).

  • But the presence of this largely Syrian force alarmed the Israelis, who were already unhappy about PLO raids from Israel.

The middle east from 1956

  • 1978 the Israelis launched a full scale invasion of Lebanon, hoping to weaken the PLO.

  • Israel occupied all of the country south of the Litani River,

The middle east from 1956

  • Israel would not withdraw until after the UNIFIL (UN Interim Force in Lebanon) convinced them to hand over control to the right wing Christian militias (who had strong ties with and were supplied by the Israelis.)

The middle east from 1956

  • Israel effectively partitioned the country by encouraging the setting up on an ‘Independent Free Lebanon’ in the south.

  • The Syrians took over much of the northeast, including the important Baka’a Valley

The middle east from 1956

  • 1982 the Israelis returned in force.

  • goal was to destroy the PLO in Lebanon.

  • 6,000 PLO fighters found themselves trapped in Beirut.

  • Eventually US intervention (with UK, France, and Italy) brought a cease fire

The middle east from 1956

  • Start to see suicide bombers in Beirut – 200 US marines killed.

The middle east from 1956

  • 1987 - Yasser Arafat and the PLO were relocated – some to Syria, but the key leadership moved to Tunisia.

  • Peace isn’t reached until 1991.

  • Still has problems with Palestinian terrorist groups in the South launching attacks on Israel

  • Arafat died in 2004

Lebanon now

Lebanon now

  • Unstable government

  • Sunni Muslims fight Shiites, or Druzhe, or Christians.

  • Fundamentalists fight moderates.

  • Syrians sometimes intervene and restore order, while Israelis frequently send in forces to eliminate the omnipresent guerillas.

The iran iraq war 1980 88

The Iran-Iraq War 1980-88

  • Saddam Hussein feared Islamic revolution

    • Majortity Shiite

    • Iran wanted to Export Islam while Iran wanted it out

  • Oil tankers in the Persian Gulf were threatened by mines.

  • The USA, and UK supported Saddam because of the treatment Iran was giving them.

Saddam and donald rumsfeld

Saddam and Donald Rumsfeld

The middle east from 1956

  • Chemical weapons used

  • Oil platforms burned

  • Iran lost about 1 million civilians and soldiers

  • Iraq lost about 350,000

  • Both spent $500 billion

The middle east from 1956

  • Mustard gas was used

  • Causes burning and yellow blisters on skin

  • Can blind

  • Burns the lung tissue

  • Heal extremely slow

The middle east from 1956

  • By 1988 the UN had to intervene as neither side was going to win

  • 1990 – peace terms agreed to.

Build up to the gulf war

Build up to the Gulf War

  • Threat of Islamic Revolution

  • Saddam wants more power in the area

  • Iraq was in debt after the Iran-Iraq war

  • Saddam had Treated the Kurds badly

  • Iraq making WMDs (maybe)

The first gulf war 1990 91

The First Gulf War 1990-91

  • Aug 1990 – Iraqi government ordered troops to invade Kuwait.

  • Hussein said that it ‘belonged’ to Iraq historically.

  • Did not expect international community to react because USA had stated they don’t care about Kuwait

The middle east from 1956

  • Saddam was broke after war with Iran

  • Thought he could take Kuwait and make Iraq the #2 oil producer

  • This would give Iraq political power and $

The middle east from 1956

  • UN put sanctions on Iraq – cutting off oil trade

  • UN demanded Iraq leave Kuwait by Jan 15, 1991

  • The sanctions failed by 1991 which led to the USA led UN attack

Counter attack1

Counter - Attack

  • Led by President George Bush Sr.

  • Supported by UK and later Saudis, Syrians and Egyptians (out of fear of Saddam)

  • Demanded Saddam out by Jan 15, 1991

  • Force of 950,000

The middle east from 1956

  • Kuwait had asked for help and got it

  • End of Cold War meant USA had troops to spare

  • Bush collected political debts to make the coalition

  • Paid for by USA and Saudi Arabia

The middle east from 1956

  • Iraq has no help except for the voices of Jordan and south Yemen

  • PLO offered help but it was refused

Operation desert storm

Operation Desert Storm

  • Begins Feb 24.

  • Bombed Baghdad and other locations for 1 month

  • A 4 day ground campaign chased Iraq out of Kuwait. Iraq lost 90,000 men.

  • Bush called a ceasefire in fear that the Arab countries in the Coalition would leave.

The middle east from 1956

  • Iraq had tried to distract by unleashing SCUD missiles on Israel

  • Iraq on verge of having Nuclear weapons

  • Did have chemical weapons

  • US air superiority won the war

The middle east from 1956

  • Iraq forced out of Kuwait

  • 1992- economic sanctions placed until Saddam got rid of his arsenal

  • World waited for Israel to respond to the SCUD attack

  • USA missed chance to remove Saddam

Was it all about resources

Was it all about resources?

  • Iraq needed $

  • Oil prices had fallen in the 1980’s

  • Iraq demanded Kuwait’s oil fields and $2 billion

  • When defeated, Iraq burned oil fields in retreat

  • US/UN reaction swift because oil supplies at risk (would it be the same reaction if Kuwait grew broccoli?)

No it wasn t about resources

No, it wasn’t about resources

  • Iraq’s real motive was domination

  • For Arab sates, it was self defense

  • UN action about ‘collective security’ not oil

  • Israel got involved only after missile attacks

  • Many involved did not rely on Persian Gulf oil

  • Military just wanted to test their weapons

Issues during and after the gulf war

Issues during and after the Gulf war

1.Weapons of Mass destruction threat. Saddam trying to develop nuclear weapons in the 1980’s. he did have Biological and poison gas weapons. Which he used against the Kurds.

2.USSR was collapsing.

Saddam ordered burning of kuwait s oilfields

Saddam ordered burning of Kuwait’s oilfields

  • Smoke was so thick the sun was blocked out

  • Spills everywhere, many birds died

  • Huge environmental problems

Gulf war syndrome

Gulf war syndrome

  • Soldiers exposed to chemicals, pollutants, depleted uranium, pesticides, PTSD and vaccines

  • fatigue, loss of muscle control, headaches, dizziness and loss of balance, memory problems, muscle and joint pain, indigestion, skin problems, birth defects

The middle east from 1956

  • Pesticides given to repel bug bites

  • Anti-gas pills against gas attacks

  • Exposure to Sarin and Mustard gas

  • First time DU used in munitions

  • Anthrax vaccine has side effects

Conclusions on the middle east

Conclusions on the Middle East

  • This dispute will not go away

  • Jews and Palestinians will always lay claim to the same land

  • Prosperity in the area will always be hampered by struggle

  • End :)

  • Login