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Chapter 22. Tidy Plans, Ugly Realities: The Civil War Through 1862. The Art and Science of War. Art of War influences commanders Focus on occupying high ground Focus on taking enemy cities Retreat when necessary Jomini’s 12 models of war The Armies Calvary: for reconnaissance

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Chapter 22

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Chapter 22

Chapter 22

Tidy Plans, Ugly Realities:

The Civil War Through 1862

The art and science of war

The Art and Science of War

  • Art of War influences commanders

    • Focus on occupying high ground

    • Focus on taking enemy cities

    • Retreat when necessary

    • Jomini’s 12 models of war

  • The Armies

    • Calvary: for reconnaissance

    • Artillery: weakens enemy

    • Infantry: backbone of army

    • Also support units

The art and science of war cont d

The Art and Science of War(cont.’d)

  • Infantry

    • Brigades of 2,000–3,000

    • Form double lines of 1,000 yards

    • Advance into enemy fire

    • Then fight hand-to-hand

    • Most battles in dense woods

  • Yanks and Rebs

    • Most between 17 and 25

    • From all states, social classes

    • Draft exempts upper class

    • Anti-draft riots in New York City

    • Draft dodgers in South

    • Some bounty hunters

    • High desertion rates

    • Shirking duty not common

The art and science of war cont d1

The Art and Science of War(cont.’d)

  • Women in the Civil War

    • Unofficially serve as spies

      • Harriet Tubman

      • Rose O’Neal Greenhow

    • Officially serve as nurses

      • Elizabeth Blackwell first doctor

      • Founded U.S. Sanitary Commission

      • Clara Barton

    • Fill lower ranks of federal bureaucracy

The sobering campaign of 1861

The Sobering Campaign of 1861

  • First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

    • Both sides thought war would be short

    • First battle 20 miles from Washington

    • South wins, Union forces flee in panic

    • South fails to attack Washington

    • South celebrates victory

    • Stonewall Jackson hero for South

    • Pierre Beauregard loses respect

    • South disorganized even in victory

Map of the battle of bull run

Map of the Battle of Bull Run

Sobering campaign of 1861 cont d

Sobering Campaign of 1861 (cont.’d)

  • Consequences of Manassas (Bull Run)

    • South becomes overconfident

    • North prepares for long fight

    • George McClellan given command of Army of Potomac

  • Northern strategy

    • Defend Washington; take Richmond

    • Split Confederacy by taking Mississippi River

    • Blockade southern coastline

  • Mismatch

    • North had population advantage of 22 to 9 million

    • Industry in north

    • Railroads mainly in the north

    • Southerners knew the battleground

    • Interior lines in the south

    • More southerners had military training especially officers

Sobering campaign of 1861 cont d1

Sobering Campaign of 1861 (cont.’d)

  • Southern hope for help from abroad fails

    • Southern strategy = Hold off North until help comes from abroad

    • Hope North grows weary of fighting

    • France decides to intervene in Mexico

    • British government pro-Confederate

    • British people anti-slavery

    • Britain never helps South

  • Jefferson Davis tries to force Britain’s hand

    • Withholds sale of cotton

    • British mills stockpile cotton before war

    • British need grain more than cotton

Sobering campaign of 1861 cont d2

Sobering Campaign of 1861 (cont.’d)

  • Diplomacy

    • U.S. captures Confederate diplomats on British ship, Trent

    • Britain threatens war

    • British build ships for South

    • U.S. uses diplomacy to keep Britain out of the war

1862 and stalemate

1862 and Stalemate

  • Copperheads: Northern sympathizers of South

  • Defeatists: Believe war is not worth the effort

  • Lincoln suspends writ of habeas corpus

    • Jails many dissenters, weakens their effectiveness

  • War in the West

    • Union moves troops to Kentucky

    • Union captures Forts Grant and Donelson

    • Next major battle at Shiloh, Tennessee

    • North wins in incredibly bloody battle

Map of the war in the west

Map of the War in the West

1862 and stalemate cont d

1862 and Stalemate(cont.’d)

  • War at sea

    • Confederates use commerce raiders

    • Confederates try to outrun North’s blockade

    • South’s Merrimack, North’s Monitor ironclad ships

    • March 9, 1862 first clash of ironclad ships

    • North builds more ironclad ships; South lacks resources

  • McClellan has the “slows”

    • Army well-trained and equipped

    • McClellan reluctant to attack

    • McClellan was Democrat and disliked Lincoln’s war policy

    • Lincoln frustrated with McClellan

1862 and stalemate cont d1

1862 and Stalemate(cont.’d)

  • Peninsula Campaign

    • Union troops between York and James Rivers

    • McClellan delays; South maneuvers

    • 7-day battle; Lincoln recalls troops

    • Lincoln replaces McClellan

  • Antietam

    • Eastern theater stalemates

    • South invades Maryland

    • North stops south of Antietam

    • Lee retreats to Virginia

Maps of mcclellan s peninsula campaign and 7 day battles

Maps of McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign and 7-Day Battles

1862 and stalemate cont d2

1862 and Stalemate(cont.’d)

  • Emancipation Proclamation

    • Lincoln’s war aim to save Union

    • Antislavery sentiment growing

    • Lincoln frees slaves in states fighting Union

    • Effective January 1, 1863

  • Slavery: The Beginning of the End

    • Reassures slave states

    • Allows North to use black troops

    • Improves morale

    • Mollifies Radical Republicans

1862 and stalemate cont d3

1862 and Stalemate(cont.’d)

  • Stalemate renewed

    • McClellan replaced with Anthony Burnside

    • Burnside loses at Fredericksburg, Virginia

    • War bogs down in West

    • War stalemates as both sides retreat for winter

Map of stalemate in the east

Map of Stalemate in the East

Discussion questions

Discussion Questions

  • What were the similarities and differences between the armies of the North and South at the start of the war?

  • Examine the First Battle of Manassas. Why did the South win? Was it possible for this battle to have ended the war?

  • What advantages and handicaps did both sides have at the beginning of the war?

  • Was the Emancipation Proclamation the great writing from the heart of a great man, or a sly political move to help win the war?

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