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Organization . Atom: Carbon Molecule: Myoglobin (a protein) Cells: Muscle Cell Tissues : homogenous layer of cells. One being smooth muscle which is composed of layers of smooth muscle cells.

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Organization
Organization

  • Atom:Carbon

  • Molecule:Myoglobin (a protein)

  • Cells:Muscle Cell

  • Tissues: homogenous layer of cells. One being smooth muscle which is composed of layers of smooth muscle cells.

  • Organ: Different tissues working together to serve a similar function.Smooth muscle, epithelial and connective tissues…make up blood vessel (an organ)

  • System; blood vessels along w/ heart -Circulatory System (ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL)

  • Organism: Cardiovascular System, Respiratory, Skeletal etc.


Atoms are electrically neutral

Protons = Electrons

Atomic number = number of protons

Atomic mass = protons + neutrons


Planetary models of elements
Planetary Models of Elements

p+ represents protons, no represents neutrons


Chemically

reactive—outer

shell not full

Chemically

inert—full

outer shell


Why do elements react
Why Do Elements React?

  • Most elements react because they are highly

    UNSTABLE due to the fact that their outer electron shell or “valence shell” is not full.

  • Bonding, either by transference of electrons or sharing results in a full outer shell…and a new compound.

  • One column of elements ….The NOBLE gases, do not react..are inert , because their valence shells are already full.


Single covalent bond
Single Covalent Bond

  • One pair of electrons are shared


Anions and cations
Anions and Cations

  • Anion

    • atom that gained electrons (net negative charge)

  • Cation

    • atom that lost an electron (net positive charge)

  • Ions with opposite charges are attracted to each other



Hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bonds

  • This is bond between molecules….. OR

  • Between different parts of one molecule

  • It occurs between covalently positively charged Hydrogen and negatively charged atom.

  • Important in many biological molecules ……like DNA!!!


Water
Water

  • High Specific Heat- Loses and gains heats S-L-O-W-L-Y

  • High Surface Tension and Cohesion- Water molecules sticking together form a “film” or tension.

  • Universal Solvent- Dissolves polar or ionic molecules which are the most prevalent kind in living systems.



Acids bases and ph
Acids, Bases and pH

  • An acid is proton donor (releases H+ ions)

  • A base is proton acceptor (accepts H+ ions)

  • pH = the concentration of H+ ions in solution

    • a pH of less than 7 is acidic solution

    • a pH of greater than 7 is basic solution

    • a pH of 7.0 is neutral pH



0 ions. pH = 7

7

14

basic

alkaline

acid

pH

Negative logarithm of hydrogen

ion concentration

strongweakstrong


Ph scale
pH Scale ions. pH = 7


Acids and bases neutralize ions. pH = 7

each other

H+

from acids

+

[OH]-

from bases

H2O

Buffers

  • prevent abrupt pH changes

  • act as H+ sponge


An example of homeostasis
An Example of Homeostasis ions. pH = 7

  • Nearly all life chemistry occurs around pH 7…slightly over. Blood has pH between 7.3 and 7.5 and must be maintained as such!

  • When pH falls ACIDOSIS, TOO HIGH ALKALOSIS

  • BUFFERS: these are what MAINTAIN homeostasis of pH. ….we have buffer systems….Hemoglobin is a buffer.


Bicarbonate is an alkaline and a vital ions. pH = 7component of the pH buffering system of the body ,maintaining acid-base homeostasis.

70%-75% of CO2 in the body is converted into carbonic acid(H2CO3), which can quickly turn into bicarbonate (HCO3−).

What are terms for too acidic? Too Alkaline?


Atoms are electrically neutral ions. pH = 7

Protons = Electrons

Atomic number = number of protons

Atomic mass = protons + neutrons


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