The renaissance
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The Renaissance. 1450 -1600. THE RENAISSANCE. What does “renaissance” mean? A re-birth of what?. The Early Renaissance 1400s – 1490s. Where did the Renaissance begin? Why did it begin there? What were the driving factors behind the Renaissance?. The Italian City-States.

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The Renaissance

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The renaissance

The Renaissance

1450 -1600


The renaissance

THE RENAISSANCE

  • What does “renaissance” mean?

  • A re-birth of what?


The early renaissance 1400s 1490s

The Early Renaissance1400s – 1490s

Where did the Renaissance begin?

Why did it begin there?

What were the driving factors behind the Renaissance?


The italian city states

The Italian City-States

What is a City-State?


The italian city states1

The Italian City-States

What were the advantages?


The italian city states2

The Italian City-States

What were the disadvantages?


The italian city states3

The Italian City-States

Florence and Milan were ruled by rival families, the Medici’s and the Sforza Family respectively.


The italian city states4

The Italian City-States

Venice was a Republic, ruled by a Senate which elected a Doge to head the government. The Doge remained in power for life but the position was not hereditary.


The italian city states5

The Italian City-States

The Papal states were run by the Pope elected by the Bishops for life. The power of which was diminishing as the Renaissance ideas of humanism and secularism were expanding.


Western schism

Western Schism


Florence italy

Florence, Italy

  • The Cultural Center of Europe in the Early Renaissance

    • Art

    • Commerce

    • Banking


The social structure

The Social Structure

POPULO GROSSO: “fat people” – 5% of the population – elite/nobles, wealthy merchants, and manufacturers.

MEDIOCI: middle – smaller merchants and master artisans. SKILLED WORKERS

POPULO MINUTO: “little people” – bulk of the urban population. UNSKILLED WORKERS


The social structure1

The Social Structure

There was some social mobility – Why?


The medici family

The Medici Family

Cosimo established the Medici Bank and “unofficially” ruled Florence from 1434-1464

He was a patron of the humanities and supporter of Bunelleschi and Donatello among others

Catherine de’Medici married Henry of Navarre and became the Queen of France

Piero lost control of Florence in 1492. He died in exile

Lorenzo de’Medici was known as The Magnifient. He was also a patron of humanities and supported Botticello, da Vinci, and Michelangelo

Piero’s son Lorenzo gained control of Florence back and ruled at the height of the Medici’s power over Florence


The medici family1

The Medici Family

  • Wealthy Banking Family – provided stability

  • Banished rival clans

  • Manipulated electoral process

  • Cosimo’s Grandson – survived an assassination attempt – hours later enemies of the family were hanging upside down from a government building – including the archbishop of Pisa

    • Botticello was commissioned to paint them as they swung.


The beginning of the modern banking system

The Beginning of the Modern Banking System

INDIVIDUALISM

The Medici’s set up the first modern banking system with branches in England and Bruges as well as throughout the Italian peninsula

The Gold Florin became the standard currency in European trade

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF BANKING?

WHAT ARE THE RISKS?


Humanism

HUMANISM

INDIVIDUALISM

A transition from the scholasticism of the Middle Ages

Revival of Greek and Roman beliefs

Appreciation of physical beauty

Emphasis on man’s own achievements

Secularism

PETRARCH – considered the first humanist


Science and technology

Science and Technology

INDIVIDUALISM

Influenced by Humanism which encouraged curiosity and questioning of accepted beliefs

Experimentation and observation

Define and understand the laws of nature and the physical world.


The early renaissance

THE EARLY RENAISSANCE

  • 1400-1490s

  • Patronage of the Medici family made:

    • Florence the center of the Early Renaissance

    • Allowed artists to become successful celebrities


Brunelleschi

Brunelleschi

1446-1461

8 sided dome of Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral

The symbol of Florence


Brunelleschi1

Brunelleschi

INDIVIDUALISM

Devised a way to draw and paint using linear perspective

“chiaroscuro” – the illusion of 3D


Donatello

Donatello

David, de Donatello

1430 – commissioned by Cosimo de Medici

Humanism – first free standing nude statue since ancient times

Civic-humanism


Titian giorgione

Titian & Giorgione

INDIVIDUALISM

Developed method of painting with oil directly on canvas

Allowed artists to reword an image which they couldn’t do with fresco painting

Transitioning into the Northern Renaissance


Desiderius erasmus

Desiderius ERASMUS

Erasmus of Rotterdam

promoted religious toleration

wanted the Church to reform


The high renaissance

The High Renaissance

1490s – 1527

Rome replaced Florence as the center of culture

Pope Leo X – he was the son of Lorenzo de Medici


Michelangelo

Michelangelo

David 1501- 1504– became the symbol of Florence

Dominant sculptor of the Renaissance

Humanism – reflected the ideals of the Greek Gods


Michelangelo1

Michelangelo

INDIVIDUALISM

Pieta, 1498 - 1499


Michelangelo2

Michelangelo

The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 1508 - 1512


Leonardo da vinci

Leonardo da Vinci

  • Mona Lisa, 1503-1506

  • “Renaissance Man”

    • Artist

    • Scientist

    • Architect

    • Philosopher

    • Engineer


Leonardo da vinci1

Leonardo da Vinci

The Virgin of the Rocks, 1483

Unparalleled ability to portray light and shadow

And to portray the physical relationship between figures and the landscape


Leonardo da vinci2

Leonardo da Vinci

The Last Supper, 1494 - 1498


Raphael

Raphael

The School of Athens, 1509-1511

Learned from Michelangelo and da Vinci

Humanism – expressed classical ideals of beauty, serenity and harmony


Northern renaissance

Northern Renaissance

Northern “Christian” Humanism – applied the Classical beliefs and ideals to the traditional understandings of the gospel.

Art was more detailed and more focused on color than in the Italian Renaissance

Sir Thomas More - Utopia


Jan van eyck

Jan Van Eyck

Arnolfini Portrait – 1434

Netherlands

Techniques allowed for deeper and more vibrant color

Considered one of the first painting of “everyday life”


Albrecht durer

Albrecht Durer

INDIVIDUALISM

Self Portrait, 1500

Germany


Hans holbein the younger

Hans Holbein the Younger

Portrait of Henry VIII, 1536

German

Became the Court Painter for Henry VIII

Humanist


Pieter bruegel the elder

Pieter Bruegel, the Elder

The Peasant Wedding, 1567

Flemish (Belgian)


Transitions of the renaissance

Transitions of the Renaissance

HUMANISM

Scholasticism

SECULAR

RELIGIOUS

REALISM

IDEALISM


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