The Renaissance. 1450 -1600. THE RENAISSANCE. What does “renaissance” mean? A re-birth of what?. The Early Renaissance 1400s – 1490s. Where did the Renaissance begin? Why did it begin there? What were the driving factors behind the Renaissance?. The Italian City-States.
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Where did the Renaissance begin?
Why did it begin there?
What were the driving factors behind the Renaissance?
What is a City-State?
What were the advantages?
What were the disadvantages?
Florence and Milan were ruled by rival families, the Medici’s and the Sforza Family respectively.
Venice was a Republic, ruled by a Senate which elected a Doge to head the government. The Doge remained in power for life but the position was not hereditary.
The Papal states were run by the Pope elected by the Bishops for life. The power of which was diminishing as the Renaissance ideas of humanism and secularism were expanding.
POPULO GROSSO: “fat people” – 5% of the population – elite/nobles, wealthy merchants, and manufacturers.
MEDIOCI: middle – smaller merchants and master artisans. SKILLED WORKERS
POPULO MINUTO: “little people” – bulk of the urban population. UNSKILLED WORKERS
There was some social mobility – Why?
Cosimo established the Medici Bank and “unofficially” ruled Florence from 1434-1464
He was a patron of the humanities and supporter of Bunelleschi and Donatello among others
Catherine de’Medici married Henry of Navarre and became the Queen of France
Piero lost control of Florence in 1492. He died in exile
Lorenzo de’Medici was known as The Magnifient. He was also a patron of humanities and supported Botticello, da Vinci, and Michelangelo
Piero’s son Lorenzo gained control of Florence back and ruled at the height of the Medici’s power over Florence
The Medici’s set up the first modern banking system with branches in England and Bruges as well as throughout the Italian peninsula
The Gold Florin became the standard currency in European trade
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF BANKING?
WHAT ARE THE RISKS?
A transition from the scholasticism of the Middle Ages
Revival of Greek and Roman beliefs
Appreciation of physical beauty
Emphasis on man’s own achievements
PETRARCH – considered the first humanist
Influenced by Humanism which encouraged curiosity and questioning of accepted beliefs
Experimentation and observation
Define and understand the laws of nature and the physical world.
8 sided dome of Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral
The symbol of Florence
Devised a way to draw and paint using linear perspective
“chiaroscuro” – the illusion of 3D
David, de Donatello
1430 – commissioned by Cosimo de Medici
Humanism – first free standing nude statue since ancient times
Developed method of painting with oil directly on canvas
Allowed artists to reword an image which they couldn’t do with fresco painting
Transitioning into the Northern Renaissance
Erasmus of Rotterdam
promoted religious toleration
wanted the Church to reform
1490s – 1527
Rome replaced Florence as the center of culture
Pope Leo X – he was the son of Lorenzo de Medici
David 1501- 1504– became the symbol of Florence
Dominant sculptor of the Renaissance
Humanism – reflected the ideals of the Greek Gods
Pieta, 1498 - 1499
The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 1508 - 1512
The Virgin of the Rocks, 1483
Unparalleled ability to portray light and shadow
And to portray the physical relationship between figures and the landscape
The Last Supper, 1494 - 1498
The School of Athens, 1509-1511
Learned from Michelangelo and da Vinci
Humanism – expressed classical ideals of beauty, serenity and harmony
Northern “Christian” Humanism – applied the Classical beliefs and ideals to the traditional understandings of the gospel.
Art was more detailed and more focused on color than in the Italian Renaissance
Sir Thomas More - Utopia
Arnolfini Portrait – 1434
Techniques allowed for deeper and more vibrant color
Considered one of the first painting of “everyday life”
Self Portrait, 1500
Portrait of Henry VIII, 1536
Became the Court Painter for Henry VIII
The Peasant Wedding, 1567