States of matter
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States of Matter. Chapter 4. States of matter are the physical forms in which matter can exist. States of matter are determined by how fast the individual particles (atoms) are moving. Solid. Liquid. GAS. Phases of Matter. Solids definite shape and volume.

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States of Matter

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States of matter

States of Matter

Chapter 4


States of matter are the physical forms in which matter can exist

States of matter are the physical forms in which matter can exist

  • States of matter are determined by how fast the individual particles (atoms) are moving

Solid

Liquid

GAS


Phases of matter

Phases of Matter


Solids definite shape and volume

Solidsdefinite shape and volume

  • Slowest particle movement (lowest energy level)

  • Particles “wiggle”, but are locked in place

  • Particles are strongly attracted to each other


Liquid definite volume no definite shape

Liquiddefinite volume, no definite shape

  • Slightly faster motion, slightly higher energy level

  • Particles slide past each other but still remain in close contact

  • Particles are not as attracted to each other


Gas no definite shape or volume

Gasno definite shape or volume

  • Faster particle motion, higher energy level

  • Particles bounce off of each other creating space between them

  • Particles are not attracted to each other at all


Plasma no definite shape no definite volume

Plasmano definite shape, no definite volume

  • Fastest particle motion, highest energy level

  • Similar to a gas, particle bounce off of each other

  • Particles are broken apart because they are moving so fast


Changes of state

Section 2

Changes of State

The conversion of a substance from one physical form to another


Endo vs exo

Endo vs Exo

  • Endothermic-

    • Endo = in, enter

    • Thermic= heat energy

  • Heat/energy absorbed

    • Requires extra heat, energy

    • Makes a substance warmer

  • Exothermic-

    • Exo = out, exit

    • Thermic = heat energy

  • Heat/energy given off

    • Does not require extra heat, but heat is produced

    • Makes a substance cooler


States of matter

Temperature

Basic unit is 0celsius (0C)

Tool is a thermometer

Used to measure how much heat energy (thermal energy) is in a material

Kelvin is also used to measure total heat energy.

Absolute zero (0 K) means there is no heat energy, no heat vibration, (this is perfectly cold)

Important numbers

00C is the freezing point of water

1000C is the boiling point of water


Temperature scales

Water Boils

Body Temperature

Water Freezes

Absolute Zero

(no heat, all molecular

vibration stops)

Temperature Scales

0Fahrenheit0Celcius Kelvin

2120

98.60

320

00

- 4590

1000

370

00

-2730

373

310

273

0


Converting temperatures

Celsius to Fahrenheit

Fahrenheit to Celsius

Converting Temperatures

Celsius to Kelvins

K = 0C + 273

Kelvins to Celsius

0C = K – 273


Melting

Melting

  • Endothermic change of a solid into a liquid


Vaporization

Vaporization

  • Endothermic change of a liquid turning into a gas

  • Also called boiling


Boiling looks like this

Boiling looks like this…

TEMPERATURE

While the water is boiling the temperature will not rise. It will stay at 1000C until all of the water is gone.

Boiling Point

1000C


Evaporation

Evaporation

  • Vaporization that occurs at temperatures below the boiling point

  • Can occur with solids or liquids


Vaporization liquid into gas

VAPORIZATIONliquid into gas

Evaporation is when vaporization occurs at he surface, but below the boiling point (at any temperature)

EVAPORATION

Boiling is when vaporization occurs throughout the liquid at the boiling point

BOILING


Freezing

Exothermic change of a liquid into a solid

Examples

Lava into a rock

Water into ice

Freezing


Condensation

Exothermic change of a gas into a liquid

Example

Rain

Condensation


Sublimation

Endothermic change of a solid directly into a gas

Example

Dry ice (frozen CO2) into carbon dioxide gas, comet

Sublimation


Changes of state chart

Changes of State Chart

GAS

Boiling Point

Condensation

Point

LIQUID

TEMPERATURE

Melting Point

Freezing Point

SOLID

TIME


Changes of state chart1

Changes of State Chart

GAS

Boiling Point

1000C

(for water)

LIQUID

TEMPERATURE

Melting Point

00C

(for water)

SOLID

TIME


Changes of state chart2

Changes of State Chart

GAS

1000C

(for water)

Condensation

Point

LIQUID

TEMPERATURE

00C

(for water)

Freezing Point

SOLID

TIME


Look at it going up or down

Look at it going up or down…

Boiling Point

GAS

Condensation Point

TEMPERATURE

LIQUID

Melting Point

Freezing Point

SOLID

TIME


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