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States of Matter. Chapter 4. States of matter are the physical forms in which matter can exist. States of matter are determined by how fast the individual particles (atoms) are moving. Solid. Liquid. GAS. Phases of Matter. Solids definite shape and volume.

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states of matter are the physical forms in which matter can exist
States of matter are the physical forms in which matter can exist
  • States of matter are determined by how fast the individual particles (atoms) are moving

Solid

Liquid

GAS

solids definite shape and volume
Solidsdefinite shape and volume
  • Slowest particle movement (lowest energy level)
  • Particles “wiggle”, but are locked in place
  • Particles are strongly attracted to each other
liquid definite volume no definite shape
Liquiddefinite volume, no definite shape
  • Slightly faster motion, slightly higher energy level
  • Particles slide past each other but still remain in close contact
  • Particles are not as attracted to each other
gas no definite shape or volume
Gasno definite shape or volume
  • Faster particle motion, higher energy level
  • Particles bounce off of each other creating space between them
  • Particles are not attracted to each other at all
plasma no definite shape no definite volume
Plasmano definite shape, no definite volume
  • Fastest particle motion, highest energy level
  • Similar to a gas, particle bounce off of each other
  • Particles are broken apart because they are moving so fast
changes of state

Section 2

Changes of State

The conversion of a substance from one physical form to another

endo vs exo
Endo vs Exo
  • Endothermic-
    • Endo = in, enter
    • Thermic= heat energy
  • Heat/energy absorbed
    • Requires extra heat, energy
    • Makes a substance warmer
  • Exothermic-
    • Exo = out, exit
    • Thermic = heat energy
  • Heat/energy given off
    • Does not require extra heat, but heat is produced
    • Makes a substance cooler
slide10
Temperature

Basic unit is 0celsius (0C)

Tool is a thermometer

Used to measure how much heat energy (thermal energy) is in a material

Kelvin is also used to measure total heat energy.

Absolute zero (0 K) means there is no heat energy, no heat vibration, (this is perfectly cold)

Important numbers

00C is the freezing point of water

1000C is the boiling point of water

temperature scales
Water Boils

Body Temperature

Water Freezes

Absolute Zero

(no heat, all molecular

vibration stops)

Temperature Scales

0Fahrenheit 0Celcius Kelvin

2120

98.60

320

00

- 4590

1000

370

00

-2730

373

310

273

0

converting temperatures
Celsius to Fahrenheit

Fahrenheit to Celsius

Converting Temperatures

Celsius to Kelvins

K = 0C + 273

Kelvins to Celsius

0C = K – 273

melting
Melting
  • Endothermic change of a solid into a liquid
vaporization
Vaporization
  • Endothermic change of a liquid turning into a gas
  • Also called boiling
boiling looks like this
Boiling looks like this…

TEMPERATURE

While the water is boiling the temperature will not rise. It will stay at 1000C until all of the water is gone.

Boiling Point

1000C

evaporation
Evaporation
  • Vaporization that occurs at temperatures below the boiling point
  • Can occur with solids or liquids
vaporization liquid into gas
VAPORIZATIONliquid into gas

Evaporation is when vaporization occurs at he surface, but below the boiling point (at any temperature)

EVAPORATION

Boiling is when vaporization occurs throughout the liquid at the boiling point

BOILING

freezing
Exothermic change of a liquid into a solid

Examples

Lava into a rock

Water into ice

Freezing
sublimation
Endothermic change of a solid directly into a gas

Example

Dry ice (frozen CO2) into carbon dioxide gas, comet

Sublimation
changes of state chart
Changes of State Chart

GAS

Boiling Point

Condensation

Point

LIQUID

TEMPERATURE

Melting Point

Freezing Point

SOLID

TIME

changes of state chart1
Changes of State Chart

GAS

Boiling Point

1000C

(for water)

LIQUID

TEMPERATURE

Melting Point

00C

(for water)

SOLID

TIME

changes of state chart2
Changes of State Chart

GAS

1000C

(for water)

Condensation

Point

LIQUID

TEMPERATURE

00C

(for water)

Freezing Point

SOLID

TIME

look at it going up or down
Look at it going up or down…

Boiling Point

GAS

Condensation Point

TEMPERATURE

LIQUID

Melting Point

Freezing Point

SOLID

TIME

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