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Presented By: Robert Leck NOAA’s National Weather Service (QSS Group Inc. for NOAA/NWS). Results of Operational Compatibility Studies between ASR, Meteorological Radars and IMT Systems Operating in the 2 700 – 2 900 MHz Band. January 2007. ARS and Meteorological Radars. Overview

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Presented by robert leck noaa s national weather service qss group inc for noaa nws

Presented By:

Robert Leck

NOAA’s National Weather Service

(QSS Group Inc. for NOAA/NWS)

Results of Operational Compatibility Studies between ASR, Meteorological Radars and IMT Systems Operating in the 2 700 – 2 900 MHz Band

January 2007


Ars and meteorological radars
ARS and Meteorological Radars

  • Overview

  • Meteorological Radar Frequency Band

  • Meteorological Radar Coverage

  • ASR Coverage

  • 2700-2900 MHz Band Utilization


Overview
Overview

  • The 2700-2900 MHz Band is used on a global basis by both ASR and meteorological radars

  • NOAA operates a wide network of meteorological Radars.

  • Interference to meteorological radars from IMT systems degrades the radars performance.

  • Simulations verify potential problems and establish if compatibility between systems is possible.


Asr and meteorological radar 2700 2900 mhz band
ASR and Meteorological Radar 2700-2900 MHz Band

Radio Regulations Footnote 5.423- In the band 2700-2900 MHz, ground based radars used for meteorological purposes are authorized to operate on a basis of equality with stations of the aeronautical radionavigation service.


2700 2900 mhz band utilization noaa nws nexrad network
2700-2900 MHz Band UtilizationNOAA NWS NEXRAD Network



2700 2900 mhz band utilization current radar and potential base station deployment
2700-2900 MHz Band UtilizationCurrentRadar and Potential Base Station Deployment

ASR Radar Deployment

Meteorological Radar

Deployment

Typical Base Station

Deployment


2700 2900 mhz band utilization rf survey
2700-2900 MHz Band UtilizationRF Survey

Frequency Domain Representation of the 2700-2900 MHz Band within an Urban Environment (Los Angeles, California)


Meteorological radars
Meteorological Radars

  • Base Products

  • Interference Criteria

  • Effects of Interference Upon Radar Performance


Meteorological radar base products
Meteorological Radar Base Products

  • Modern meteorological radars measure reflectivity, velocity and spectrum width

    • Reflectivity:return signal level used to measure total water in sample volume

    • Velocity:measure of speed and direction of movement of the atmosphere

    • Spectrum Width:measurement used to determine turbulence and wind shear


Asr and meteorological radar interference protection criteria
ASR and Meteorological Radar Interference Protection Criteria

  • The ITU-R has established an I/N of -10 dB for ASR and meteorological radars. (ITU-R Recommendation M.1464)

  • Additional testing to determine if an I/N of -14 dB can be justified is being planned for 2007.


Effects of interference on radar performance
Effects of Interference on CriteriaRadar Performance

  • Presence of interference:

    • Raises the radar noise floor making it less sensitive to very weak return signals

    • Increases intensity of reflectivity measurement resulting in overestimation of atmosphere moisture content and rainfall

    • Corrupts base data products used for measuring wind

    • velocity, turbulence, wind shear, and tornado detection


Example of interference on radar operations
Example of Interference on Radar Operations Criteria

No Interference

Interference


Imt systems
IMT Systems Criteria

  • What is IMT ?


What is imt
What is IMT? Criteria

  • IMT encompasses both IMT-2000 and IMT-Advanced Systems

    • Intended to provide seamless worldwide mobile

    • telecommunications (voice and high speed data)

    • Use one band plan worldwide

    • Use a common radio standard for worldwide mobility

  • Worldwide compatibility standards development being led by ITU

  • Seeking spectrum in various frequency ranges including the 1-3 GHz range


Simulations
Simulations Criteria

  • Study/Simulation Objectives

  • Simulation Criteria

  • IMT Cell Topologies


Study simulation objectives
Study/Simulation Objectives Criteria

  • To combine and summarize the results of several different studies regarding sharing of the 2 700 – 2 900 MHz band between various radar (ASR and meteorological) and IMT systems.

  • To conduct new simulations that provide insight into the feasibility of sharing the 2 700 – 2 900 MHz band between ASR and meteorological radars and IMT systems.

  • Based upon the results of those studies, develop conclusions regarding the compatibility of those systems when jointly operated within the 2700-2900 MHz band.


Simulation criteria
Simulation Criteria Criteria

  • The simulation was conducted using propagation characteristics and terrain modelling simulations that were based upon a software implementation of ITU Recommendation ITU-R- P.452-12.

  • IMT system characteristics were taken from ITU Recommendation ITU-R M.2039

  • Radar characteristics were taken from ITU Recommendation ITU-R M.1464 and ITU-R M.1461


Simulation criteria1
Simulation Criteria Criteria

  • The simulations were configured to closely approximate the operation of the radar.

  • IMT topologies included macro, micro and pico cell deployments.

  • The predominant interfering element in an IMT network is the IMT base station.


Simulation criteria2
Simulation Criteria Criteria

  • The interference simulations were run under two scenarios.

    • The first scenario had the radar placed at the edge of the cell coverage area.

    • The second scenario varied the distance from which the radar was offset from the cell coverage area.


Macro cell topology

Service Area Criteria

75 km

75 km

Radar

Separation

Distance

Macro Cell Topology

Radar is Offset from a Macro Cell Service Area


Micro cell topology

Service Area Criteria

10 km

Radar

10 km

Separation Distance d

Micro Cell Topology

Radar is offset from Micro Cell Service Area


Pico cell topology
Pico Cell Topology Criteria

Radar is offset from Pico Cell Service Area

Service Area

Radar

Separation Distance d


Simulation results
Simulation Results Criteria

  • IMT to MeteorologicalRadars

  • Meteorologicaland Airport Surveillance Radars to IMT Systems

  • Multiple Meteorologicaland Airport Surveillance Radars to IMT Systems

  • Conclusions


Simulation results imt to meteorological radars
Simulation Results CriteriaIMT to Meteorological Radars


Simulation results imt to meteorological radars1
Simulation Results CriteriaIMT to Meteorological Radars

  • Results have shown that a minimum separation distance of 500 km between Meteorological radars and IMT networks is necessary to protect radar operations

    • Even with separation distances in excess of 500 km, the meteorological radar I/N Protection Criteria as defined by the ITU cannot be met.

  • Studies have shown that interference from IMT macro, micro and pico based topologies within the 2 700 – 2 900 MHZ band will impair Airport Surveillance Radars and Meteorological radar operations.


Simulation results meteorological and airport surveillance radars to imt systems
Simulation Results CriteriaMeteorological and Airport Surveillance Radars to IMT Systems

  • Interference from radar pulses has the potential to degrade IMT receiver performance via a number mechanisms including

    • LNA overload

    • Saturation of the automatic gain control (AGC)

    • Interference to signal ratios beyond the dynamic range of the analog to digital converter (ADC)

    • Filter overload

    • Mixer overload.


Simulation Results CriteriaMeteorological and Airport Surveillance Radars to IMT Systems

  • Simulation results showed co-channel operation interference can occur even with large separation distances between Airport Surveillance Radars, Meteorological Radars and IMT systems.


Simulation results meteorological and airport surveillance radars to imt systems1
Simulation Results CriteriaMeteorological and Airport Surveillance Radars to IMT Systems

  • The ITU specified interference protection criteria for IMT Base stations was shown to always be exceeded at distances below 100 miles1.

  • Simulations indicated that widespread jamming of mobile and base station units would take place within the operational range of the radars.

    (1)Propagation effects (multipath, fading, terrain, etc.) could result in received signal levels from the radar that are higher than those predicated by path loss extending this distance even further.


Simulation results multiple meteorological and airport surveillance radars to imt systems
Simulation Results CriteriaMultiple Meteorological and Airport Surveillance Radars to IMT Systems

  • The LNA in the handset will, at times, be operating at or above its 1 dB compression point.

    • This will result in the potential desensitizing of the IMT receiver and loss of service.

  • Base and Mobile station receiver LNA's can, at times, be subjected to high levels of RF energy.

    • These levels can damage sensitive components in the base and mobile station receivers, effectively disabling multiple service areas.


Potential imt system degradation
Potential IMT System Degradation Criteria

  • Loss of service

  • Dropped calls

  • Damage to sensitive receiver electronics

  • Poor quality of service

  • Limited deployment potential


Conclusions imt to meteorological and airport surveillance radars
Conclusions CriteriaIMT to Meteorological and Airport Surveillance Radars

  • RF emissions from IMT transmitters would necessitate separation distances in excess of 500 km in order to ensure that radar receiver protection criteria are not exceeded .

  • Even if large separation such distances could be tolerated, regions in which sharing could take place would be severely limited due to the widespread geographical deployment of multiple Meteorologicaland Airport Surveillance Radars..


Conclusions meteorological and airport surveillance radars to imt systems
Conclusions CriteriaMeteorological and Airport Surveillance Radars to IMT Systems

  • Radar signals, when present at the input to the IMT receivers, can overload the receiver resulting in loss of service or, in some instances, damage to the base station and or mobile unit.

    • Even if the IMT service were offset in frequency from one radar system, the IMT systems would still be interfered with by other radar systems operating at different frequencies throughout the band.

  • IMT receivers would be jammed, disabled or damaged by the aggregate RF effect of the radar systems operating in that band.


Conclusions meteorological and airport surveillance radars to imt systems1
Conclusions CriteriaMeteorological and Airport Surveillance Radars to IMT Systems

  • Current IMT interference mitigation techniques would not protect the IMT mobile or base station receivers from high power radar signals.

  • In scenarios where the band use is limited to uni-directional (Base Station to Mobile Station) transmissions only, the separation distances required to protect the IMT receivers would make the deployment of such a network impossible due to the effect of the interference from the radars into the IMT mobile stations.


Conclusions 2700 2900 mhz band utilization
Conclusions Criteria2700-2900 MHz Band Utilization

  • Studies have shown that IMT systems cannot operate with radars in the same band.

  • IMT operation in 2700-2900 MHz will place unacceptable operational restrictions on meteorological radar operations and result in detrimental interference to the radars.

  • IMT receivers would be jammed, disabled or damaged by the aggregate RF effect of the radar systems operating in that band.

  • The required separation distances for sharing of the band preclude the effective deployment of IMT systems.

  • The overall results of the study show that sharing of the 2 700 – 2 900 MHZ band with IMT systems is not feasible.


Recommendation
Recommendation Criteria

That IMT systems not operate within the same geographical region[1] as Airport Surveillance and Meteorological radars

[1]For purposes of this recommendation the same geographic area is defined as within a 500 km radius of a radar operating in the 2 700-2 900 MHz band.


Thank you
Thank You ! Criteria


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