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The Age of Napoleon. Ch 11 Sec 3. Napoleon Bonaparte. Born 1769 Island of Corsica Sent to military school at age 9 Graduated at 16 Became lieutenant. Military Success. Hero of the Hour Oct. 1795 Defended Nat’l Convention from royalist rebels Savior of French Republic.

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The age of napoleon

The Age of Napoleon

Ch 11 Sec 3


Napoleon bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte

  • Born 1769

    • Island of Corsica

  • Sent to military school at age 9

    • Graduated at 16

    • Became lieutenant


Military success
Military Success

  • Hero of the Hour

    • Oct. 1795

      • Defended Nat’l Convention from royalist rebels

      • Savior of French Republic



Consul and emperor
Consul and Emperor Austria

  • Coup d’Etat – sudden seize of power

    • 1799 – Directory lost control of political situation in France

      • Lost confidence of French people



Napoleon s domestic policies
Napoleon’s Domestic Policies Austria

  • 1800 – plebiscite approves new constitution

    • Vote of the people

    • Constitution gives all power to Napoleon


Peace with the church
Peace with the Church Austria

  • Concordat w/Pope Pius VII (agreement) - 1801

    • Gov’t recognized influence of church on society

    • Rejected church control in nat’l affairs

    • People that had bought Church lands got to keep them


Codification of the laws
Codification of the Laws Austria

  • Napoleonic Code (Civil Code)

    • Uniform set of laws

    • Eliminated injustice

      • Equality of all citizens before the law

      • Right of individual to choose a profession

      • Religious toleration

      • Abolition of serfdom


A new bureaucracy
A New Bureaucracy Austria

  • Napoleon establishes order and stability

    • Supports strong central gov’t, stable economy, and equality in taxation

      • Didn’t care about rank in society or birth

    • Set up tax-collecting system and national bank

      • Promoted sound financial management

      • Better control of gov’t


  • Created a new aristocracy Austria

    • Based on meritorious service to the nation

    • 1808-1814 – created 3200 nobles

      • 60% were military officers

      • 40% civil service or state and local officials


  • Reduced Austriagov’t corruption

    • Dismissed corrupt officials

    • Established lycees – gov’t-run public schools

      • Open to male students of all backgrounds

      • Jobs given based on merit, not family connections



Preserver of the revolution
Preserver of the Revolution? person?

  • Good

    • Equality before the law

    • Gov’t careers open to anyone

  • Bad

    • Limited liberty

    • Promoted order and authority over individual rights

    • Restricted freedom of speech and press

      • gov’t inspected all manuscripts and mail



Building the empire
Building the Empire person?

  • 1799 – France at war w/ Russia, GB and Austria

    • Began signing peace treaties in 1802

  • 1803 - GB, Russia, Austria and Sweden form coalition against France

  • Takes army against coalition

    • Crushes opposition

    • Unpredictable

    • Rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia sign treaties


Loss of american territories
Loss of American Territories person?

  • Napoleon sells Louisiana

    • United States buys in 1803 - $15 million

    • $211,699,586.02

    • Gained $ and punished British enemies


  • 1807-1812 Napoleon is master of Europe person?

  • Three major parts of Grand Empire

    • French Empire

    • Dependent states

    • Allied states

  • French Empire

    • Enlarged France extending to Rhine River

    • Also included parts of northern Italy


  • Dependent states person?

    • Areas ruled by Napoleon’s relatives

    • Spain, Holland, Italy, Swiss Republic, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine

  • Allied states

    • Defeated by Napoleon and forced to join fight against GB

    • Prussia, Austria, Russia


  • French Empire person?

    • 1812 – few countries free of Napoleon’s control

      • GB, Ottoman Empire, Sweden, Portugal

    • Conquered people feel loyalty to homeland

    • Huge and unstable empire


Spreading the principles of the revolution
Spreading the Principles of the Revolution person?

  • French ideals spread throughout Grand Empire

    • Legal equality

    • Religious toleration

    • Economic freedom

  • Destroy old order in inner core and dependent states

    • Nobility and clergy lose power and privileges


British resistance
British Resistance person?

  • Battle of Trafalgar - 1805

    • Only battle lost by Napoleon to Coalition

      • Major naval defeat – British Admiral Horatio Nelson

    • French fleet destroyed

      • Assured supremacy of GB on the seas

      • Forced Napoleon to give up plans of invading GB


  • The Continental System person?

    • Nov. 1806 – Napoleon orders blockade of GB

      • Prevent all trade and communication w/other countries

    • Continental system

      • Make continental Europe more self-sufficient

      • Intended to destroy economy of GB


  • Blockade unsuccessful person?

    • Smugglers bring cargo from Britain to Europe

    • Allies disregarded his orders

    • New markets in Middle East and Latin America

  • Britain Blockades France

    • Stopped neutral ships bound for Europe

  • Hurts Napoleon more than GB


Nationalism
Nationalism person?

  • Sense of a unique identity of a group of people

  • As Napoleon conquered, people became united in their hatred of him

  • Increased their sense of national identity

    • Gave them more power


Invasion of russia
Invasion of Russia person?

  • 1812 – thirst for power leads to disastrous mistake

    • Alexander I, czar of Russia, refuses to stop selling grain to GB

    • Napoleon and Alexander suspect each other of having plans for Poland

    • Napoleon decides to invade Russia



  • Sept. 7, 1812 – Battle of Borodino person?

    • Battle swings between both sides

    • Russia eventually retreats and Napoleon takes Moscow

    • Alexander torches Moscow so Napoleon couldn’t have it

    • Napoleon stays for 5 weeks



The final defeat
The Final Defeat person?

  • Coalition Defeats Napoleon

    • Fights Coalition of GB, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden

    • Napoleon raises another army in a few months

      • Untrained soldiers

      • Battle of Lepzig – Oct. 1813 – army severely beaten

    • Empire Crumbles

      • Jan 1814 – Prussians, Russians, and Austrians march on Paris

      • March – Czar Alexander I and Frederick William III of Prussia march through Paris



  • The Hundred Days person?

    • Louis XVIII takes thrown

      • Brother of Louis XVI

      • Unpopular among peasants

      • Suspected of wanting to undo reforms of revolution

    • Napoleon escapes from Elba

      • Thousands welcome him in Paris

      • Volunteers join his army

      • Napoleon regains position as emperor



  • Ends Hundred Days person?

    • Napoleon’s second reign as Emperor

    • Napoleon exiled to St. Helena

      • island in Atlantic Ocean

    • Dies after 6 years

    • 1821 at age of 53


Congress of vienna convenes

Congress of Vienna Convenes person?

Ch. 12 Sec 2


  • After defeat of Napoleon person?

    • Goal of new European order

      • Collective security and stability for entire continent

    • Congress of Vienna

      • Series of meetings in Vienna to set up policies to achieve this goal


Metternich restores stability
Metternich Restores Stability person?

  • “Five Great Powers”

    • Prussia, Russia, Austria

      • represented by rulers

    • GB, France

      • represented by foreign ministers

    • Klemens von Metternich

      • Foreign minister of Austria


  • Three Goals of Metternich person?

    • Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries

    • Restore balance of power so that no country would be threat

    • Restore Europe’s royal families to thrones held before Napoleon – legitimacy


  • Containment of France person?

    • Congress makes weak countries around France stronger

    • Allow countries of Europe to contain France


  • Balance of Power person?

    • Leaders of Europe don’t want to go too far

      • Too severe – France may take revenge

      • Break up France – another country might become too strong

    • Easy on French

      • Give up all territories Napoleon took

      • France remains intact

      • Keeps overseas possessions, army, and independent gov’t


Conservatism
Conservatism person?

  • Based on tradition and belief in value of social stability

  • Obedience to public authority

  • Relied heavily on influence of religion

  • Hated revolutions

  • Unwilling to accept demands of people

    • Want individual rights or representative government


Principle of intervention
Principle of Intervention person?

  • Great powers of Europe had right to send armies into other countries

    • Restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones

  • GB refuses this

    • Doesn’t think great powers should interfere in other nations internal affairs


  • Legitimacy person?

    • Powers affirm principle of legitimacy

      • Agreement that as many as possible of the rulers Napoleon had driven out be restored

      • France – Louis XVIII given throne

      • Bourbon rulers of Spain and Kingdom of Two Sicilies

      • Former rulers of the German States



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