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with pollen & microfossils indicating warm temps. Amazon.com. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/images/eol/2003/owenslake.html. http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/ov_aqueduct1/page19.html. http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/owens/. Global warming and freshwater supply in Asia….

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slide1

with pollen & microfossils

indicating warm temps.

slide2

Amazon.com

http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/images/eol/2003/owenslake.html

http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/ov_aqueduct1/page19.html

http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/owens/

slide3

Global warming and freshwater supply in Asia…

The Himalayan glaciers feed seven of the great rivers of Asia (the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Salween, Mekong, Yangtze and Huang He) and supply fresh (melt) water runoff to 1/3 of the world’s population (~ 2 billion people).

http://assets.panda.org/downloads/glacierspaper.pdf

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Himalayas.jpg

slide4

Reconstructing climates is detective work.

Sherlock Holmes: A Study in Scarlet, p. 57

Most people, if you describe a train of events to them, will tell you what the result would be. They can put those events together in their minds, and argue from them that something will come to pass. There are few people, however, who, if you told them a result, would be able to evolve from their own inner consciousness what the steps were which led up to that result. This power is what I mean when I talk of reasoning backwards, or analytically."

slide5

Natural archives

http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/darwin/dhwqmp/dhwq-200-03.html

https://www.e-education.psu.edu/gened/egee101/Examples/109_temperature_new.html

http://www.research.noaa.gov/spotlite/archive/images/liquidgold_treering.jpg

slide6

Instrumental or historical archives

http://banana.ifa.hawaii.edu/Weather/weather_station.gif

Price of rye in Germany vs. time expressed as an index. (Source: Lamb, 1995)

http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/lia/little_ice_age.html

slide8

http://www.usssp-iodp.org/Education/One_core.html

http://iodp.tamu.edu/scienceops/maps/iodp_odp_dsdp.gif

what are the sediment archives and what can they tell us
What are the sediment archives and what can they tell us?

Sediment ArchiveProxy Indicator of

coarse sand fraction of

biogenic material surface and deep water environmental conditions

lithic grains (ice-rafted debris) glacial activity on land

volcanic ash volcanic activity on land

slide10

Biological clues

Azolla: freshwater fern spore

pollen

http://www.immediart.com/catalog/images/big_images/NS_PN_B786630-Pollen_grain,_ESEM-SPL.jpg

http://www.water.sannet.ne.jp/nirei/palynology/zukan/spore01.jpg

slide11

Developmental

Steps in SST History

G.

T.

Polar type

The dominant planktonic species, indicating presence of cool surface waters

Non-polar types

slide12

Types physical and compositional evidence of past environments

Illite clay: physical weathering

Kaolinite clay: chemical weathering

http://www.ualberta.ca/~jwaldron/gallerypages/wavetide.html

http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/children/minerals/potplant.htm

slide15

http://www.koshland-science-museum.org/exhibitgcc/historical10.jsphttp://www.koshland-science-museum.org/exhibitgcc/historical10.jsp

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_core

slide20

Determining age – counting backwards (seasonal or annual layers)

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/Antevs/nats104/00lect11.html

slide21

Determining age – matching to known patterns

magnetic pole reversal pattern

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/geos462/pmabutlr.gif

slide23

Resolution of record - How detailed can you get?

depends on sedimentation (accumulation) rate

slide24

Resolution of record - How detailed can you get?

depends on how disturbed archive is

http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/207_IR/chap_06/c6_f7.htm

slide25

What archives you use depends on the timespan you are trying to reconstruct.

And – the more clues the better – aim for amultiproxy approach.

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