With pollen & microfossils
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with pollen & microfossils indicating warm temps. Amazon.com. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/images/eol/2003/owenslake.html. http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/ov_aqueduct1/page19.html. http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/owens/. Global warming and freshwater supply in Asia….

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with pollen & microfossils

indicating warm temps.


Amazon.com

http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/images/eol/2003/owenslake.html

http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/ov_aqueduct1/page19.html

http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/owens/


Global warming and freshwater supply in Asia…

The Himalayan glaciers feed seven of the great rivers of Asia (the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Salween, Mekong, Yangtze and Huang He) and supply fresh (melt) water runoff to 1/3 of the world’s population (~ 2 billion people).

http://assets.panda.org/downloads/glacierspaper.pdf

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Himalayas.jpg


Reconstructing climates is detective work.

Sherlock Holmes: A Study in Scarlet, p. 57

Most people, if you describe a train of events to them, will tell you what the result would be. They can put those events together in their minds, and argue from them that something will come to pass. There are few people, however, who, if you told them a result, would be able to evolve from their own inner consciousness what the steps were which led up to that result. This power is what I mean when I talk of reasoning backwards, or analytically."


Natural archives

http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/darwin/dhwqmp/dhwq-200-03.html

https://www.e-education.psu.edu/gened/egee101/Examples/109_temperature_new.html

http://www.research.noaa.gov/spotlite/archive/images/liquidgold_treering.jpg


Instrumental or historical archives

http://banana.ifa.hawaii.edu/Weather/weather_station.gif

Price of rye in Germany vs. time expressed as an index. (Source: Lamb, 1995)

http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/lia/little_ice_age.html


Sediment accumulates in “low spots”


http://www.usssp-iodp.org/Education/One_core.html

http://iodp.tamu.edu/scienceops/maps/iodp_odp_dsdp.gif


What are the sediment archives and what can they tell us?

Sediment ArchiveProxy Indicator of

coarse sand fraction of

biogenic materialsurface and deep water environmental conditions

lithic grains (ice-rafted debris)glacial activity on land

volcanic ashvolcanic activity on land


Biological clues

Azolla: freshwater fern spore

pollen

http://www.immediart.com/catalog/images/big_images/NS_PN_B786630-Pollen_grain,_ESEM-SPL.jpg

http://www.water.sannet.ne.jp/nirei/palynology/zukan/spore01.jpg


Developmental

Steps in SST History

G.

T.

Polar type

The dominant planktonic species, indicating presence of cool surface waters

Non-polar types


Types physical and compositional evidence of past environments

Illite clay: physical weathering

Kaolinite clay: chemical weathering

http://www.ualberta.ca/~jwaldron/gallerypages/wavetide.html

http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/children/minerals/potplant.htm


http://www.koshland-science-museum.org/exhibitgcc/historical10.jsp

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_core


http://the-periodic-table.org/printable.gif


Determining age – isotopic decay “clocks”


Determining age – isotopic decay “clocks”


Determining age – isotopic decay “clocks”


Determining age – counting backwards (seasonal or annual layers)

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/Antevs/nats104/00lect11.html


Determining age – matching to known patterns

magnetic pole reversal pattern

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/geos462/pmabutlr.gif


Determining age – matching to known patterns

Glacial-interglacial cycles


Resolution of record - How detailed can you get?

depends on sedimentation (accumulation) rate


Resolution of record - How detailed can you get?

depends on how disturbed archive is

http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/207_IR/chap_06/c6_f7.htm


What archives you use depends on the timespan you are trying to reconstruct.

And – the more clues the better – aim for amultiproxy approach.


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