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The Vietnam War – Phase III (1969-1975)

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The Vietnam War – Phase III (1969-1975). President Nixon & Vietnam “Peace with Honor” 1) maintain US dignity in the face of its withdrawal from war 2) preservation of US clout at the negotiating table Nixon  SV govt. to remain intact. The Vietnam War – Phase III (1969-1975).

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the vietnam war phase iii 1969 1975
The Vietnam War – Phase III (1969-1975)
  • President Nixon & Vietnam
  • “Peace with Honor”
  • 1) maintain US dignity in the face of its withdrawal from war
  • 2) preservation of US clout at the negotiating table
  • Nixon  SV govt. to remain intact
the vietnam war phase iii 1969 19751
The Vietnam War – Phase III (1969-1975)
  • Paris Negotiations
  • US & South Vietnam Desire:
  • A) NV forces withdraw from SV
  • B) Nguyen Van Thieuremain in power
  • North Vietnam & Vietcong Desire:
  • A) US troops w/draw from SV
  • B) Thieu govt. step aside to include one w/ Vietcong
  • During meetings Nixon announces Vietnamization
vietnamization
Vietnamization
  • Nixon’s strategy to end America’s involvement in Vietnam
  • 1) Gradual withdrawal of US troops
  • 2) Have the South Vietnamese (ARVN) take a more active combat role in the war
  • 3) Increase the pressure on the communist forces to negotiate
    • Leads to Nixon  Cambodia
    • Increased bombing of the North
withdrawal of us forces 1969 1973
Withdrawal of US Forces (1969-1973)

By late August 1969 first 25,000 US troops w/drew

Next 3 years - troops from +500,000 to less than 25,000

massive bombing campaign
Massive Bombing Campaign
  • Secret campaign against the supply routes and bases in NV
  • Expanded to includeHo Chi Minh Trail in Laos & Cambodia
  •  Vietcong sanctuaries
  • objectives:
  • 1) strengthen South Vietnam
  • 2) facilitate negotiations with NV & VC
the invasion of cambodia
The Invasion of Cambodia
  • April 30, 1970 - Nixon announces “incursion” into Cambodia
  • Purpose: to clear out NV and VC supply centers
  • No notification of Congress
  • Congress repeals Tonkin Gulf Resolution (Dec. 1970)
criticism of the war mounts 1970 1973
Criticism of the War Mounts (1970-1973)
  • 1969 to April 1970
  • Nixon appeals to the silent majority — less explosive mood regarding Vietnam
  • (US troops returning)
  • shift in focus on college campuses to environment
  • This mood changes with Nixon’s announcement  Cambodia
impact of the invasion of cambodia
Impact of the Invasion of Cambodia
  • Viewed as an expansion of the war
  • College protests erupt (1st nationwide student strike)
  • 1.5 million student shut down 1,200 campuses
  • Kent State
  • ROTC building burned
  • National Guard mobilized
  • Public Opinion  supports the National Guard
kent state shootings
Kent State Shootings

Protestors: Nine wounded, Two Killed

Innocent Bystanders: Two Killed

slide15

John Filo\'s photograph of Mary Ann Vecchio, kneeling over the body of Jeffrey Miller after he was shot dead by the Ohio National Guard

other developments at home
Other Developments at Home
  • The “Hardhats”
  • Massive demonstration supports war policies
  • The Pentagon Papers
  • Defense Dept. worker Daniel Ellsberg leaks 7,000 page document McNamara
  • 1) government drew up plans  war even as Johnson was promising that he would not send troops to Vietnam
  • 2) showed no plan to end the war as long as NV resisted
the north vietnamese invade sv march 1972
The North Vietnamese Invade SV (March 1972)
  • largest offensive since Tet
  • Nixon’s vow:
  • The Communists “have never been bombed like they are going to be bombed this time.”
  • Operation Linebacker
  • Haiphong’s harbor is mined
  • Bombings stop the offensive
  • Stalemate continues – Nixon determined to end the war
a turning point
A Turning Point
  • 1971 60% Americans felt US should w/draw from Vietnam
  • Nixon’s 1972 election concerns
  • Henry Kissinger
  • Secret negotiations since 1969 in Paris  Le DucTho
  • eventually drops insistence that NV withdraw all its troops from SV before the complete withdrawal of US troops
  • October 26, 1972
  • “Peace is at hand.”
kissinger s plan is rejected by the thieu regime
Kissinger’s plan is rejected by the Thieu regime
  • Alarmed @ prospect of NV troops in SV
  • NV breaks off talks December 16, 1972
operation linebacker ii
Operation Linebacker II
  • US planes drop 100,000 bombs on Hanoi and Haiphong for 11 straight days
  • Paused only on Christmas
  • The “Christmas bombings”
  • Calls to End the War
  • From Congress
  • From Beijing & Moscow
the war ends for the us
The War Ends for the US
  • Paris Peace Agreement - Jan. 27, 1973
  • March 29, 1973 last US troops leave South Vietnam
  • The Fall of Saigon
  • Within months of the US departure, cease-fire between NV and SV collapsed
north vietnam invades the south
North Vietnam Invades the South
  • March 1975: full-scale invasion begins
  • Thieu appeals for US help
  • economic aid but no troops
  • April 30, 1975: NV tanks roll into Saigon
  • South Vietnam surrenders
  • Saigon Ho Chi Minh City
the vietnam war reasons for defeat
The Vietnam War – Reasons for Defeat
  • (1) S. Vietnamese govt. corrupt
  • (2) Ho Chi Minh - national hero
  • US = successor to French
  • (3) NLF + N. Vietnamese troops - skilled; outfought S. Vietnamese
  • (4) Jungle Terrain - technological edge muted; supplies continued south
  • (5) sentiment in US opposes “remote war”
vietnam war casualties deaths
Vietnam War - Casualties/Deaths
  • US: 58,000 killed
  • 365,000 wounded
  • 1982 Vietnam Memorial unveiled
  • Vietnamese (NV & VC):1.5 million
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