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Emerging Issues:. New Challenges for Understanding our Changing Planet. Berrien Moore III University of New Hampshire. Global Megacycles and Trends: Setting the Agenda for 21 st Century Science. 370. 360. 350. 340. 330. 320. 310. 1957. 1963. 1969. 1975. 1981. 1987.

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Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Emerging Issues:

New Challenges for Understanding our Changing Planet

Berrien Moore IIIUniversity of New Hampshire

  • Global Megacycles and Trends: Setting the Agenda for 21st Century Science


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

370

360

350

340

330

320

310

1957

1963

1969

1975

1981

1987

Mauna Loa Monthly Carbon Dioxide Record:Keeling Record 1958-2000

Carbon Dioxide (ppmv)

1993

1999

Year

Source: C.D. Keeling and T.P. Whorf

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Historical Atmospheric Carbon Concentration for the Last 1000 Years Extracted from the Law Dome Ice Core

360

350

Ice core

340

Atmospheric Measurements

Polynomial fit

330

320

Carbon Concnetration (ppmv)

310

300

290

280

270

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

Year

Source: Etheridge, et.al., Petit, et.al.

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

0

Variation with Time

of the Vostok Isotope Temperature Record

Temperature Variation (°C)

Years Before Present

Source: Petit, et.al. (PAGES / IGBP)

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

CO2 Concentration in the Vostok Ice Core

CO2 Concentration (ppmv)

Source: Barnola, et.al. (PAGES / IGBP)

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Vostok Ice Core CO2Concentrationand

Temperature Variation Record

325

4

300

2

275

0

250

-2

CO2 Concentration (ppmv)

Temperature Variation (°C)

225

-4

200

-6

175

-8

150

-10

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

0

Years Before Present

Source: Barnola, et.al.; Petit et.al. (PAGES / IGBP)

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Vostok Record

Law Dome Record

Mauna Loa Record

IPCC IS92a Scenario

CO2 Concentration in Ice Cores andAtmospheric CO2 Projection for Next 100 Years

Projected (2100)

CO2 Concentration (ppmv)

Current (2001)

(BP 1950)

Source: C. D. Keeling and T. P. Whorf; Etheridge et.al.; Barnola et.al.;(PAGES / IGBP); IPCC

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

7

Total

Gas

Liquids

6

Solids

5

Fossil Fuel Emissions ( Gt. C/yr.)

4

3

2

1

0

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

Principal Global Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

Year

Source: Marland, et.al.

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Per Capita Emission Estimates

7

United States

Germany (unified)

Global Average

6

Peoples Rep. China

India

5

Metric Tons of Carbon Emitted per Person per Year

4

3

2

1

0

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Year

Source: Marland, et.al.

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Pressure changing composition

Pressure Changing Composition

Emissions are likely

to increase and become

more globally distributed.

Source: WHIGCC, 2000

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Global C Budget (PgC/y)

Source: IPCC, 2001

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Global Carbon Sources and Sinks

Source: GCTE / IGBP

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Gt. C per year

SOI

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

CO2Annual Growth Rate

8

6

4

2

30

0

-30

Year

Source: R. Francey (CSIRO)

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Vostok Record

Law Dome Record

Mauna Loa Record

IPCC IS92a Scenario

CO2 Concentration in Ice Cores andAtmospheric CO2 Projection for Next 100 Years

Projected (2100)

CO2 Concentration (ppmv)

Current (2001)

(BP 1950)

Source: C. D. Keeling and T. P. Whorf; Etheridge et.al.; Barnola et.al.;(PAGES / IGBP); IPCC

  • Setting the Agenda for 21st Century Science: Global Megacycles and Trends

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Greenhouse gas effect

Greenhouse Gas Effect

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Ipcc cover

IPCC Cover

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Global Carbon Sources and Sinks

Source: GCTE / IGBP

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

0.225

0.018

0.016

0.014

0.012

0.010

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.200

0.175

0.150

0.125

0.100

0.075

0.050

Surface Flux Uncertainties GtC/Mo Using Simulated Satellite Data

Surface Flux Uncertainties GtC/Mo Using Current Observational Network

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

Geometry of the WeatherSat Measurement Scheme

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

RADIOSONDE (blue) and SPACE LIDAR (green)

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


Global megacycles and trends setting the agenda for 21 st century science

WeatherSat Global Wind Coverage

10 M/S

  • Preparing Students for Careers in Remote Sensing Applications


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