Chapter 10. Weight Management. Ask Yourself. True of False? The less you weigh, the better it is for your health. Obese people pay higher insurance premiums than thin people. If you weigh too much according to the scales and the so-called ideal weight tables, you are too fat.
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True of False?
The less you weigh, the better it is for your health.
Obese people pay higher insurance premiums than thin people.
If you weigh too much according to the scales and the so-called ideal weight tables, you are too fat.
If you are too fat, it is because you eat too much.
Basal metabolism contributes only a small percentage of a person’s daily energy output.
Probably the most important contributor to the obesity problem in our country is under activity.
Any food can make you fat, even carrot sticks, if you eat enough of it.
You can lose weight faster on a properly designed diet and exercise program than on a total fast.
Fad diets are popular because their followers achieve quick and permanent weight loss.
Anorexia nervosa is a disease in which a person has no appetite.
Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adults, United States, 1988–2008
Food portion sizes and obesity rates have grown in parallel.
Vending machines selling soft drinks, high-fat snacks, and sweet snacks are common in schools and workplaces.
Adults spend more time in sedentary activities, such as watching television, computing, or commuting.
Children watch 12 to 14 hours of television a week and spend 7 hours playing video games.
Schools offer fewer physical education classes for children.
Increasing numbers of families live in communities designed for car use, unsuitable and often unsafe for activities such as walking, biking, and running.
Overweight: Conventionally defined as weight between 10% and 20% above the desirable weight for height, or a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 through 29.9.
Conventionally defined as weight 20% or more above the desirable weight for height, or a BMI of 30 or greater.
Obesity rates are higher than ever.
Currently, 67% of adults and approximately 17% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are either overweight or obese—exceeding their healthy weight range.
Annual cost of overweight and obesity exceeds $117 billion a year.
Direct costs (treatment)
Indirect costs (lost productivity, disability, morbidity & mortality)
Some people can weigh too much while others weigh too little.
Weight 10% or more below the desirable
weight for height, or a BMI less than 18.5.
Problems of underweight individuals:
Possess minimal fat stores.
Could be at a disadvantage when energy reserves are needed.
Menstrual irregularity, infertility, osteoporosis.
Body Weight versus Body Fat
Two people of the same sex, age, and height may both weigh the same, yet one may be too fat and the other too thin.
The difference lies in their body composition.
Obesity must be defined by amount of body fat rather than by weight.
The health risks for obesity refer to people who are overfat.
Desirable measures for percent body fat:
Men 12%-20% (overfat would be >25%)
Women 20%-30% (overfat would be >33%)
Measuring Body Fat
Underwater weighing or hydrostatic weighing measures the amount of water displaced.
Measuring Body Fat
Measuring Body Fat
The fatfold test gives a fair
approximation of body fat.
Measuring Body Fat
Measuring Body Fat
Distribution of Fat
There are health implications
to how body fat is distributed.
A person’s health risk is dependent on three factors:
Amount and location of body fat
Current health status
Body mass index: an index of a person’s weight in relation to height that correlates with total body fat content.
BMI does not account for:
Location of fat in the body
Muscular people with a low percentage of body fat may have a high BMI
What Is a Healthy Weight?
BMI correlates strongly with body fatness and risk of disease and death.
Waist circumference measurement provides information about the distribution of fat in the abdomen.
1. Basal metabolism—maintaining basic physiological processes such as breathing, heartbeat, and other involuntary activities.
2. Voluntary physical activities—an amount that will vary by activity level.
3.Some used for the thermic effect of food—the energy needed to digest, absorb, and process the food you eat.
How the Body Expends Energy
The sum total of all the chemical activities of the cells necessary to sustain life, exclusive of voluntary activities—that is, the ongoing activities of the cells when the body is at rest.
The rate at which the body spends energy to support its basal metabolism. The BMR accounts for the largest component of a person’s daily energy (calorie) needs.
Men: kg of body weight × 24 = calories/day
Women: kg of body weight × 23 = calories/day
Note: To convert pounds to kilograms (kg), divide pounds by 2.2.
For example, 150 lb = 68 kg [150 ÷ 2.2 = 68]
A Closer Look at Eating Behavior
The physiological drive to find and eat food, experienced as an unpleasant sensation.
The psychological desire to find and eat food, experienced as a pleasant sensation, often in the absence of hunger.
The feeling of fullness or satisfaction that people feel following a meal.
A part of the brain that senses a variety of conditions in the blood, such as temperature, salt content, and glucose content, and then signals other parts of the brain or body to change those conditions when necessary.
As used in this context, heightened activity of certain brain centers associated with excitement and anxiety.
Eating behaviors many be a response to hunger, appetite, and other complex human sensations.
Stress may also promote the accumulation of body fat.
Probably the most important contributor to obesity is underactivity.
When you eat more calories than you need, where does this excess go in your body?
The energy nutrients…
…contribute to body stores
Food component: is broken down in the body to: and then stored as:
Body fat stores
Fat after losing
(first used to
Storage compound: is broken down in the body to: and then used for:
Body fat stores
Body component: is broken down in the body to: and then used for:
Lose nitrogen in urine
Ketosis an adaptation of the body to prolonged (several days’) fasting or carbohydrate restriction.
Body fat is converted to ketones, which can be used as fuel for some brain cells.
Weight Gain and Loss
May be harmful by upsetting the acid-base balance of the blood.
The body’s lean tissue continues to be lost at a rapid rate.
The body becomes conservative and slows the process of metabolism.
Requires even fewer calories
Systematically eliminates groups of foods.
Probably lacking in nutrients.
Hard to adhere to the eating plan.
Encourages specific supplements of foods only available from selected distributor.
May contain harmful or unproven ingredients.
Touts magic or miracle foods that burn fat.
The only way to “burn” fat is to increase physical activity or decrease the amount of calories consumed.
Promotes bizarre quantities of one food or type of food.
Not good advice, considering human nutritional needs.
Has a rigid menu
No one diet plan will work for everyone.
Promotes specific food combinations.
Needlessly restricts dietary intake and choices.
Promises weight loss of more than two pounds per week.
A safe weight loss goal = 0.5-2.0 pounds/week.
Provide warnings for people with health conditions such as diabetes and hypertension.
Does the program encourage/promote physical activity?
The secret is a sensible (not to say easy) three-pronged approach involving:
Healthy eating habits
Such an approach takes tremendous dedication.
Many of those who complete weight-loss programs lose about 10% of their body weight, only to regain two-thirds of it back within 1 year and almost all of it back within 5 years.
Personalize Your Weight-Loss Plan
Find the plan that is right for you.
Think of it as an eating plan that you will adopt for life.
A calorie deficit of 500 calories/day for seven days is enough to lose one pound of body fat a week.
Spending an extra 250 calories per day by exercising will increase the calorie deficit.
calories a day for each pound of your present body weight.
Aim for gradual weight loss.
Expect to reach a plateau.
Aim for a positive gain in lean body mass.
Weight loss and bone health.
Include adequate calcium and weight-bearing exercise.
Adopt a physically active lifestyle.
Eat more food and add
General term for several conditions:
that exhibit an excessive preoccupation with:
For many people with anorexia nervosa, a full day’s diet may consist of no more than 3 or 4 items.
Bulimia nervosa, bulimarexia
Binge eating (literally, “eating like an ox”). Combined with an intense fear of becoming fat and usually followed by self-induced vomiting or the taking of laxatives.
buli = ox
Purging type:the person regularly engages in self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.
Nonpurging type:the person uses other behaviors, such as fasting or excessive exercise, but does not regularly engage in self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.