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CHAPTER 12. BIRDS MAMMALS. Section 1: BIRDS. Endothermic vertebrate Feathers and a 4-chamber heart Lay eggs Adaptations for FLIGHT include: Hollow bones Forelimbs form wings Large chest muscles Feathers. Contour Feathers. Large and give bird its shape

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chapter 12

CHAPTER 12

BIRDS

MAMMALS

section 1 birds
Section 1: BIRDS
  • Endothermic vertebrate
  • Feathers and a 4-chamber heart
  • Lay eggs
  • Adaptations for FLIGHT include:
    • Hollow bones
    • Forelimbs form wings
    • Large chest muscles
    • Feathers
contour feathers
Contour Feathers
  • Large and give bird its shape
  • Flight feathers on the wings and tail
    • Help to balance and steer
  • Consists of:
    • Central shaft
    • Barbs- projections
    • Hooks- hold barbs together
down feathers
Down Feathers
  • Short, fluffy, soft and flexible feathers
  • Trap heat and keep bird warm
  • Right next to bird’s skin
  • At the base of contour feathers
obtaining oxygen
Obtaining Oxygen
  • System of air sacs that connect to lungs
    • Maximizes oxygen consumption
  • Circulatory System:
    • 4-chamber heart- 2 atria and 2 ventricles
    • No mixing of O2 poor w/ O2 rich blood
obtaining food
Obtaining Food
  • Bills (no teeth)
    • Capture, grip, handle food
    • Shaped for quick and efficient feeding
  • Crop = internal food storage tank
    • Connected to the stomach
  • Stomach- two parts
    • Food is bathed in chemicals for break down
    • Gizzard- thick-walled, muscular part
      • Squeezes and grinds partially digested food
section 2 physics of bird flight
Section 2: Physics of Bird Flight
  • Lift- upward force that allows birds to fly
    • Fast air above bird = low pressure
      • Caused by wing beats, angle/shape of the wings
    • Slow air below bird = high pressure
  • Three types of Flight:
    • Flapping
    • Soaring and gliding
    • Diving
types of flight
Types of Flight
  • Flapping- requires lots of energy
    • Needed to get birds off the ground
    • Used for long distance flying
  • Soaring and gliding
    • Involves very little wing movement
    • Use warm air currents for soaring upward
    • Use cold air currents for gliding downward
  • Diving- does not use LIFT
    • Used for hunting prey
section 3 mammals
Section 3: Mammals
  • 4,000 species of Endothermic vertebrates
  • 4-chamber heart
  • Skin covered with hair or fur
  • Young are fed with milk from mother
    • Milk is produced in mammary glands
obtaining food1
Obtaining Food
  • 4 types of teeth:
    • Canines- pointed for stabbing and tearing
    • Incisors- flat-edged for biting and cutting
    • Pre-Molars – grinding and shredding
    • Molars- behind the pre-molars
  • Canines for carnivores
  • Molars for herbivores
obtaining oxygen1
Obtaining Oxygen
  • Breathe in and out with lungs
  • Aided by:
  • Rib muscles
  • Diaphragm- large muscle under rib cage
  • 4-chambered heart and 2-loop circulatory system
adaptations
Adaptations
  • For keeping conditions stable:
    • Fur/hair
    • Layer of fat under skin
  • For movement:
    • Walk/run on 4 limbs
    • Hopping, climbing, swimming
  • Nervous system:
    • Learn and remember
    • Highly specialized sense organs
diversity of mammals
Diversity of Mammals
  • 3 main groups:
    • Monotremes- spiny anteaters/duck-billed platypus
      • egg-laying mammals
    • Marsupials- Koalas, kanagaroos, opossums
      • Young born during early stages and grow in pouch
      • Gestation Period is very short (13 days for opossums)
        • Time between fertilization and birth
    • Placental mammals- all other mammals
      • Young develop inside mother until all systems are able to function independently of mother
      • Development inside placenta
        • Allows for gas and food exchange between mother and embryo
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