Chapter 12
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CHAPTER 12. BIRDS MAMMALS. Section 1: BIRDS. Endothermic vertebrate Feathers and a 4-chamber heart Lay eggs Adaptations for FLIGHT include: Hollow bones Forelimbs form wings Large chest muscles Feathers. Contour Feathers. Large and give bird its shape

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CHAPTER 12

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Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12

BIRDS

MAMMALS


Section 1 birds

Section 1: BIRDS

  • Endothermic vertebrate

  • Feathers and a 4-chamber heart

  • Lay eggs

  • Adaptations for FLIGHT include:

    • Hollow bones

    • Forelimbs form wings

    • Large chest muscles

    • Feathers


Contour feathers

Contour Feathers

  • Large and give bird its shape

  • Flight feathers on the wings and tail

    • Help to balance and steer

  • Consists of:

    • Central shaft

    • Barbs- projections

    • Hooks- hold barbs together


Down feathers

Down Feathers

  • Short, fluffy, soft and flexible feathers

  • Trap heat and keep bird warm

  • Right next to bird’s skin

  • At the base of contour feathers


Obtaining oxygen

Obtaining Oxygen

  • System of air sacs that connect to lungs

    • Maximizes oxygen consumption

  • Circulatory System:

    • 4-chamber heart- 2 atria and 2 ventricles

    • No mixing of O2 poor w/ O2 rich blood


Obtaining food

Obtaining Food

  • Bills (no teeth)

    • Capture, grip, handle food

    • Shaped for quick and efficient feeding

  • Crop = internal food storage tank

    • Connected to the stomach

  • Stomach- two parts

    • Food is bathed in chemicals for break down

    • Gizzard- thick-walled, muscular part

      • Squeezes and grinds partially digested food


Section 2 physics of bird flight

Section 2: Physics of Bird Flight

  • Lift- upward force that allows birds to fly

    • Fast air above bird = low pressure

      • Caused by wing beats, angle/shape of the wings

    • Slow air below bird = high pressure

  • Three types of Flight:

    • Flapping

    • Soaring and gliding

    • Diving


Types of flight

Types of Flight

  • Flapping- requires lots of energy

    • Needed to get birds off the ground

    • Used for long distance flying

  • Soaring and gliding

    • Involves very little wing movement

    • Use warm air currents for soaring upward

    • Use cold air currents for gliding downward

  • Diving- does not use LIFT

    • Used for hunting prey


Section 3 mammals

Section 3: Mammals

  • 4,000 species of Endothermic vertebrates

  • 4-chamber heart

  • Skin covered with hair or fur

  • Young are fed with milk from mother

    • Milk is produced in mammary glands


Obtaining food1

Obtaining Food

  • 4 types of teeth:

    • Canines- pointed for stabbing and tearing

    • Incisors- flat-edged for biting and cutting

    • Pre-Molars – grinding and shredding

    • Molars- behind the pre-molars

  • Canines for carnivores

  • Molars for herbivores


Obtaining oxygen1

Obtaining Oxygen

  • Breathe in and out with lungs

  • Aided by:

  • Rib muscles

  • Diaphragm- large muscle under rib cage

  • 4-chambered heart and 2-loop circulatory system


Adaptations

Adaptations

  • For keeping conditions stable:

    • Fur/hair

    • Layer of fat under skin

  • For movement:

    • Walk/run on 4 limbs

    • Hopping, climbing, swimming

  • Nervous system:

    • Learn and remember

    • Highly specialized sense organs


Diversity of mammals

Diversity of Mammals

  • 3 main groups:

    • Monotremes- spiny anteaters/duck-billed platypus

      • egg-laying mammals

    • Marsupials- Koalas, kanagaroos, opossums

      • Young born during early stages and grow in pouch

      • Gestation Period is very short (13 days for opossums)

        • Time between fertilization and birth

    • Placental mammals- all other mammals

      • Young develop inside mother until all systems are able to function independently of mother

      • Development inside placenta

        • Allows for gas and food exchange between mother and embryo


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